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Día Internacional de la Mujer 2011.

Día Internacional de la Mujer 2011.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Entrega de Silla de Ruedas.

Entrega de Silla de Ruedas.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad de Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad de Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Visita la página de “Código Ayuda A.C.” Aquí

Visita la página de “Código Ayuda A.C.” Aquí

Entrega de Reconocimiento por la AMS a la labor de Gabriela Goldsmith Presidenta de \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Código Ayuda A.C.” Más »

Día de la Niñez 2011 con nuestras socias y socios de San Lorenzo Tepaltitlán, Toluca, Estado de México.

Día de la Niñez 2011 con nuestras socias y socios de San Lorenzo Tepaltitlán, Toluca, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

 

What role should courts have in fighting climate change?

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

climate change

A federal trial pitting two cities against major oil companies took a surprising turn when an oil company lawyer largely confirmed the science that connects the burning of oil to climate change damages—but not the blame.

The case in San Francisco is weighing the question of whether climate change damages, including increasingly frequent droughts, floods, and other extreme weather, connected to the burning of oil are specifically the fault of the companies that extract and sell it.

The judge in People of the State of California v. BP P.L.C. et al. had both the plaintiffs—the cities of Oakland and San Francisco—and the defendants—several major oil companies—answer basic questions about climate change in a tutorial format.

Katharine Mach, a senior research scientist at the Stanford University School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Science, and Deborah Sivas, professor of environmental law, gave their perspectives on the climate tutorial, the science in question, and the role of the judiciary in confronting climate change challenges.

Where the brain shakes may be key to concussion

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

Concussions and other mild traumatic brain injuries seem to arise when an area deep inside the brain shakes more rapidly and intensely than surrounding areas, report researchers. The study combines data from football players with computer simulations of the brain.

They also found that the mechanical complexity of the brain means there is no straightforward relationship between different bumps, spins, and blows to the head and the likelihood of injury.

“Concussion is a silent epidemic that is affecting millions of people,” says Mehmet Kurt, a former postdoctoral fellow in the lab of David Camarillo, assistant professor of bioengineering at Stanford University. Yet exactly how concussions come about remains something of a mystery.

“What we were trying to do is understand the biomechanics of the brain during an impact.” Armed with that understanding, Kurt says, engineers could better diagnose, treat, and hopefully prevent concussion.

What’s happening in the brain?

In previous studies, Camarillo’s lab had outfitted 31 college football players with special mouthguards that recorded how players’ heads moved after an impact, including a few cases in which players suffered concussions.

For the current study, the researchers’ idea was to use that data, along with similar data from NFL players, as inputs to a computer model of the brain. That way, they could try to infer what happened in the brain that led to a concussion. In particular, they could go beyond relatively simple models that focused on just one or two parameters, such as the maximum head acceleration during an impact.

The researchers discovered that the key difference between impacts that led to concussions and those that did not had to do with how—and more importantly where—the brain shakes. After an average hit, the computer model suggests the brain shakes back and forth around 30 times a second in a fairly uniform way; that is, most parts of the brain move in unison.

In injury cases, the brain’s motion is more complex. Instead of the brain moving largely in unison, an area deep in the brain called the corpus callosum—which connects the left and right halves of the brain—shakes more rapidly than the surrounding areas, placing significant strain on those tissues.

Better helmets

Concussion simulations that point to the corpus callosum are consistent with empirical observations—patients with concussions do often have damage in the corpus callosum.

However, the researchers emphasize that their findings are predictions that need to be tested more extensively in the lab, either with animal brains or human brains that have been donated for scientific study. “Observing this in experiments is going to be very challenging, but that would be an important next step,” says Kaveh Laksari, a former postdoctoral fellow with Camarillo. Laksari and Kurt are co-lead authors of the paper in Physical Review Letters.

Head injury, not concussion, may cause CTE

Perhaps as important as physical experiments are additional simulations to clarify the relationship between head impacts and the motion of the brain—in particular, what kinds of impacts give rise to the complex motion that appears to be responsible for concussions and other mild traumatic brain injuries. Based on the studies they have done so far, Laksari says, they know only that the relationship is highly complex.

Still, the payoff to uncovering that relationship could be enormous. If scientists better understand how the brain moves after an impact and what movement causes the most damage, Kurt says, “we can design better helmets, we can devise technologies that can do onsite diagnostics, for example in football, and potentially make sideline decisions in real time,” all of which could improve outcomes for those who take a nasty hit to the head.

To spot concussions in kids, check their spit

Laksari is now an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Arizona. Kurt is now an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Stevens Institute of Technology. Additional authors are from the University of Pittsburgh and KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Huddinge, Sweden.

The Child Health Research Institute, the Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health, Stanford’s Clinical and Translational Science Award, and the Thrasher Research Foundation supported the work.

Source: Stanford University

These things shape political views of biracial youth

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

politics

Biracial youth who identify with the races of both of their parents tend to be more socially progressive and liberal than young people with a single racial background.

The multiracial population is one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, says Lauren Davenport, an assistant professor of political science at Stanford University and author of a new book, Politics Beyond Black and White (Cambridge University Press, 2018).

Curious to know more about how this group aligns politically, Davenport analyzed data from the US Census and national surveys of college students. She also conducted in-depth interviews with biracial youth to learn what goes into their self-identification and shapes their political attitudes.

Gender and socioeconomic status are among the strongest predictors of how a person of mixed race chooses to identify, Davenport found. Biracial women are more likely than men to identify with both of their races rather than one, and biracial people from more affluent backgrounds are more likely to identify as just white.

Davenport recently talked about her findings and their implications for America’s future.

Yale to host electric vehicle test drive event

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

Have you ever wondered what it would be like to own and drive a plug-in electric vehicle? DRIVE CLEAN Connecticut, along with state and campus partners, will host an Electric Vehicle Ride-and-Drive on Tuesday, April 10 from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Come to the Broadway Island at The Shops at Yale to test drive multiple EV makes and models with no sales pressure.

EVConnecticut, Plug In America, and the U.S. Department of Energy are working together to increase visibility and awareness of electric vehicles (EVs) through ride and drive events at workplaces and universities in Connecticut. The Yale Office of Sustainability, The Shops at Yale, and the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP) are partnering to engage the community in learning about and testing the abilities of today’s EVs. EV manufacturers, such as BMW, Chevrolet, and Kia as well as local dealerships, will be on hand to offer information and test drives throughout the day.  

“Connecticut remains committed to taking action to address the most pressing environmental issue of our time – climate change,” said DEEP Commissioner Robert Klee. “Given our over-reliance on fossil fuels for transportation, the electrification of a significant portion of our light duty fleet is a key strategy to substantially reducing greenhouse gas emissions in our state.  Through ongoing efforts such as ride and drive events and point of purchase rebates for EVs, we hope to raise awareness among consumers and demonstrate that today’s EVs are a smart choice that fit many lifestyles.” 

The event will open at 10 a.m. at the Broadway Island with brief introductory remarks on the importance of EVs to Connecticut’s energy and environmental future. Speakers will include Ginger Chapman, Director of the Yale Office of Sustainability, DEEP Commissioner Robert Klee, and John Mayes, Associate Vice President for Administration & Chief Procurement Officer for Yale University.

“The Yale Sustainability Plan 2025 spells out the University’s commitments to achieving carbon neutrality by or before 2050 and to advance transportation choices that improve human health and environmental vitality,” Ginger explained. “The electrification of our transportation system will help achieve these objectives.”

Yale’s efforts to support EVs on campus cover the University Fleet as well as commuters. The Yale Fleet Management team recently added an all-electric Chevrolet Bolt to its fleet to be used as a patrol vehicle at West Campus, and continues to explore new technologies to enhance sustainability of the over 450 vehicles on campus.

 “Yale supports clean, efficient, and reliable transportation options such as alternative fuel vehicles to enhance the sustainability of our commuters and university fleet,” said John Mayes, who oversees both Fleet Management and Parking & Transit. “We are actively exploring options for piloting alternative fuel vehicles for operational department use and enhancing electric vehicle infrastructure on campus.”

The event is a partnership between Plug In America, Yale Office of Sustainability, Yale University Properties, Connecticut DEEP, and is professionally produced by REACH Strategies.

Check out the event on Facebook!

For questions please contact Beata Fiszer, Yale Office of Sustainability, at beata.fiszer@yale.edu or (203) 436-3572.

Millions have been traumatized by female genital mutilation

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

W

hen Jane was 12, she was taken by force by some older women in her village in Guinea to a room outside her home and held down while her genitals were cut. She couldn’t see the instruments they used; she simply felt searing pain.

Her mother was not there, and they had never discussed this procedure performed on young girls in her community called female genital mutilation (FGM). Jane, whose name has been changed for confidentiality, later found out that her family wholeheartedly supported the practice.

While FGM is traditional in some cultures, there are no medical benefits to the procedure, and it violates a girl’s human rights. According to a recent UNICEF report, FGM is practiced in 30 countries, and at least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone FGM.

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The International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM last month highlighted the importance of eliminating this practice. As we contemplate the gains women have made during March’s Women’s History Month, we must recognize that girls worldwide continue to be at risk for lasting damage through FGM.

For more than a decade, I’ve been providing medical examinations for those seeking asylum in the U.S., and regularly evaluate those applying because they suffered FGM in their country. Their brutal stories are difficult to hear.

Jane was soft-spoken when she described her childhood ordeal. Her initial wounds healed slowly, but once she was married, sex was always painful and she has not been able to experience pleasure. She still experiences sadness and anxiety when recalling her past.

When FGM occurs, genitals are cut and sometimes removed. It is usually carried out on prepubescent girls. If the clitoris is excised, a woman’s ability to experience sexual pleasure can be diminished permanently. The acute complications can include bleeding, infection, and even death; potential long-term complications include complications in childbirth, recurrent urinary tract infections, scarring, hepatitis and HIV, and depression.

The examination revealed that Jane’s clitoris and labia minora had been removed, which is defined by the World Health Organization as type 2 FGM, one of four types.

There are many obstacles to changing this practice. For thousands of years, families have supported FGM and genuinely believe it is best for their daughters. FGM is a deeply embedded cultural norm in some societies, although there are no religious scriptures to support it. Some communities believe the practice keeps girls and women pure before, and faithful after, marriage. A girl who does not undergo FGM may be considered dirty, and she can be ostracized. And if a family doesn’t allow their daughter to undergo FGM, the community may shun them. There can even be financial consequences to the businesses of the parents of girls who object to FGM. Sometimes a girl won’t be considered to be marriageable, depriving her of another basic human experience.

But social traditions can change, and it is possible to eliminate FGM by 2030, which is the goal of the U.N. Until there is greater awareness, girls will continue to be frightened and hurt. Physicians can be powerful advocates for speaking out against FGM. Organizations such as UNICEF and the Orchid Project have worked to decrease FGM significantly in the last 30 years, but with population growth, the absolute numbers of girls harmed will continue to increase we don’t stop the practice.

I was deeply gratified when Jane and her family were granted asylum in the U.S. She knows she and her children are safe in a country that condemns FGM and is grateful that her daughters will never have to endure the pain and trauma she experienced as a girl.

Together with the medical community, families worldwide need to support the complete elimination of this practice, and keep girls safe, healthy, and unharmed.

Katherine McKenzie, M.D., is on the faculty of Yale School of Medicine and is the director of the Yale Center for Asylum Medicine. She is a Public Voices Fellow with The OpEd Project.

YDS and the world: An interview with Jan Hagens

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

Jan-Lüder Hagens is Director of International Student Exchange Programs at Yale Divinity School as well as Director of the School’s Visiting Fellows Program. YDS interviewed him about his work and these international dimensions of life on the Quad.

YDS: A big part of your work is overseeing international exchanges. Tell us about those programs. What opportunities does YDS offer to our students to study abroad?

JLH: We currently support student exchange programs with eight universities abroad, all of which have distinct features that appeal to different student applicants from YDS. At Cambridge, Westcott House offers the opportunity to study and live in a unique Anglican theological college and its liturgical community. Our three German partner universities (Heidelberg, Tübingen, and Freiburg) are theologically first-rate and among the most famous in Germany; they have 600-year traditions and sit in picture-perfect historic towns. With Copenhagen, we have an informal exchange arrangement that dramatically reduces tuition fees for students from either institution. This coming Fall, we will start an exchange with Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel’s premier academic institution. In Hong Kong, we collaborate with the Divinity School of Chung Chi College, the only theological education institution operating within a Chinese public university. And in Singapore, our students attend Trinity Theological College, which offers a specific Southeast Asian perspective and is a gateway into all of Southeast Asia. For the future, we envision additional exchange programs with universities in South America and Africa.

YDS: How many YDS students study abroad, and how many international students come to YDS?

JLH: Each year, we select about ten students from YDS and enable them to study abroad, at our academic partner institutions in Cambridge, Heidelberg, Tübingen, Freiburg, Copenhagen, Jerusalem, Hong Kong, or Singapore. The other way around, we welcome about ten students from these institutions to YDS—English and Germans, Danes and Israelis, Chinese and Singaporeans. It is a win-win.

YDS: So those programs are about students – but you also head the YDS Visiting Fellows Program. Who are these Visiting Fellows?

JLH: Yes, each year Yale Divinity School appoints as Visiting Fellows about 10 or 12 distinguished professors, ministers, priests, and other well-known professionals who have research projects in the fields of theology and religion that necessitate work with specific YDS Library holdings. Most of these individuals are from abroad, often from China (because the YDS Library has superb holdings of special interest to Chinese scholars), Korea, Japan, or Europe. We do what we can to make these guests feel welcome and at home, and provide a bit of social life, with monthly lunches and lectures. YDS also has a specialized program headed by Doreen Generoso that invites younger researchers who are in the process of completing their dissertations (and most of whom are from abroad) to come here and work under the guidance of a YDS faculty member.

YDS: How does YDS benefit from the Visiting Fellows Program?

JLH: These distinguished researchers bring their knowledge and skills with them from all over the world and share their expertise with us. All of these people are superb professionals who have gone through competitive application processes and received grants from their home countries, home institutions, or foundations. We open up our Library to them, with its first-rate research possibilities, and they in turn connect us to cutting-edge theological research that happens in other parts of the world. They associate with our faculty and students here at YDS, attend and deliver lectures, and start lunch conversations in the Refectory. And when they go back to their home countries and publish their books, they put us on the world map of theological research.

YDS: So, how international is YDS? Can you give us some numbers?

JLH: Between 2008 and 2018, the number of international students at YDS has steadily risen, from 40 then to 66 this year, which means that now 18% of our students at YDS are non-U.S. citizens. But don’t forget—the global character of YDS is obvious not only from these international students, Visiting Fellows, and Ph.D. Researchers, but also when you look at the faculty and staff. I know we have professors from Australia, Canada, Croatia, Gambia, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the U.K., and probably many other countries.   

YDS: Why is it important for YDS to have these international dimensions? How does it affect our students’ experiences?

JLH: Regardless of whether a student is preparing for an academic career or parish ministry, or yet another field, study abroad often is a life-changing experience. College and graduate school are the ideal contexts and the ideal period in most people’s life for such an experience, a time when one is most able to learn, to benefit, and also to give in the fullest and most generous measure. After YDS, an opportunity like this may never come again. In my six years of sending and receiving more than a hundred students, 99 percent were enthusiastic about their study abroad experiences, and ended up richer in mind and spirit, with new insights in their fields of theological study, new ideas for their post-graduate careers, new friends in another country and often another language, and new dimensions to their faith. 

With regard to what happens right here in YDS classrooms and within campus life, ask any American student or any YDS faculty member if the international students are a plus or not. Or just imagine YDS without these students from other countries. They bring different perspectives into the classroom and are very visible and active on campus. They play an important part not only in their own YDS International Student Fellowship, which is headed by YDS students themselves and which very much welcomes U.S.-American students, but they also contribute to our community at large. They make everything so much richer, more multi-faceted and complex, livelier, just more fun.

YDS: How does your work relate to the greater mission of YDS?

JLH: Christianity is a universal religion and not reserved for specific nations, peoples, ethnic groups, or races. It does not make sense to limit ourselves to a domestic scenario. In fact, even for the sake of our own U.S.-American questions, we may want to cast a wider look and get help from those with other perspectives, just as we hope we can help them. Such an international orientation is not gratuitous or optional; it is at the core of what YDS stands for and endeavors. Two demands that are essential to Christianity are love and justice, and we have to learn how to follow and apply them across borders and despite different passports. 

YDS: More of a personal question: How did you end up in the United States after being born and raised in Germany?

JLH: Your question is right on topic, because I first came to the U.S. as a high school exchange student in the mid-1970s. In college and graduate school, I kept going back and forth between the U.S. and Germany, but eventually completed my doctorate in the U.S. Finally, I fell in love with a theological ethicist from the U.S. and decided to live here and help others go abroad.

Lineup revealed for 10th annual Environmental Film Festival at Yale

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

The Environmental Film Festival at Yale (EFFY), which has grown into one of the nation’s premier student-led environmental film festivals, has announced the lineup for its 10th annual festival, which will be held in New Haven from April 4 to 7.
 
The four-day event, which will be held across the Yale campus, will open with “An Inconvenient Sequel,” the follow-up to Al Gore’s Academy Award-winning documentary “An Inconvenient Truth,” which helped bring climate change to mainstream audiences.
 
Other feature films include “Chasing Coral,” an acclaimed documentary on the plight of the world’s coral species; “Beyond Standing Rock,” which examines the historic context behind the Dakota Access Pipeline protests; and “Containment,” a film that explores the challenges of storing nuclear waste. The festival will close with a screening of “Wasted! The Story of Food Waste,” which explores the problem of food waste and how it can be reversed.

The lineup also includes 10 short films, which will be shown before the features, and a student film showcase highlighting a range of short- and feature-length film projects. View the full EFFY lineup

All events are free and open to the public.

While there is ample scientific evidence and data reflecting the profound environmental challenges facing the planet, film can help people feel the impacts of climate change, pollution, rampant development, says Emma Crow-Willard ’18 M.E.M., director of the 2018 EFFY.

“Film is such a powerful medium for translating information,” she said. “Whether we’re aware or not, media shapes the way we think and behave. It’s time for media creators to take an active role in changing our society with purpose.

The event will kick off with a formal opening night gala, at 5:30 p.m. April 4 in Kroon Hall, which will commemorate the 10th EFFY festival. The gala will feature Eric Desatnik ’10 M.E.M., the EFFY founder and former head of public relations for XPRIZE; Flo Stone, founder of the Environmental Film Festival in the Nation’s Capital; and Jon Shenk, director of “An Inconvenient Sequel.” Tickets are available here.
 
Desatnik, who is also a film producer, says the vision of EFFY is even more relevant than when he founded it a decade ago.
 
“At a more macro level, what these films do is showcase how regular people can meaningfully influence the public discourse and shape our future for the better,” he said. “Today, change-making is no longer only within the purview of government agencies, corporations, or wealthy philanthropists, but you and I now have the tools and the platform to change our world in ways that were unimaginable even ten years ago.”

Should states have their own foreign policy?

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

A new paper raises crucial legal and political questions about states having their own foreign policy and suggests that, in key ways, California already does.

“How will the federal government respond if there are multiple voices speaking for the United States in the international arena?”

California—the country’s most populous state and the world’s sixth largest economy—is challenging the legal limits of federal power in foreign affairs. From climate to immigration to human rights, the state is increasingly acting on its own.

“Federalism was, until recently, the darling of conservatives,” says David Freeman Engstrom, a law professor at Stanford University. “But in the current moment, federalism’s valence has flipped. Sub-federal governments—including states, counties, and cities—are driving progressive policy agendas and moving onto the global stage in a wide range of areas. And California is leading the charge.”

Challenging Trump

Under the current administration, the incentives are high right now for California—and other states and municipalities—to advance priorities that are stuck in gridlock or moving backward at the federal level.

“As a former foreign policy-maker, the question I have been asking myself is: To what extent are we going to see progressive states challenge the Trump administration, particularly in the realm of foreign policy?” says Jeremy M. Weinstein, a professor of political science, who also served as deputy to the US ambassador to the United Nations during the Obama administration. “And how will the federal government respond if there are multiple voices speaking for the United States in the international arena?”

Take climate policy, for example.

In 2017, Gov. Jerry Brown met with China’s President Xi Jinping to negotiate a joint partnership to reduce carbon emissions. Ahead of the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP23), Fiji’s Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama, president of the conference, named Brown special adviser for states and regions. When President Trump pulled out of the Paris climate accord, hundreds of sub-federal governments—including dozens of towns and cities in California—pledged to abide by the agreement.

But these are only recent cases. In 2013, well before the Trump administration, California began to connect its cap-and-trade system regulating how companies emit greenhouse gases to provinces in Canada. The result is a sub-federal system for regulating carbon that spans international borders.

‘One-voice doctrine’

There’s a problem with all this sub-federal activism, according to the researchers: It might run afoul of the US Constitution.

“One problem is that the Constitution says that states aren’t supposed to enter into agreements with other states, whether domestic or foreign, except with congressional consent,” says Engstrom, noting that could include California’s cap-and-trade linkages, and Congress can disallow them if it chooses.

The conventional view of foreign affairs is based on the “one-voice doctrine,” a premise that the federal government must speak as a cohesive unit on foreign affairs, which is out of sync with reality, Weinstein says.

While working in government, Weinstein helped shepherd a range of international initiatives including the Open Government Partnership, an effort to engage national and sub-national governments in promoting transparency. Initiatives like this show how the one-voice doctrine doesn’t match up with what is taking place.

“We are starting to see some fissures and cracks in the doctrine.”

“Anyone who has worked in the foreign policy space will tell you that the global stage is an increasingly crowded place, with nongovernmental organizations, multinational corporations, and every level of government vying for influence and exercising their voice,” he says.

The “one-voice” idea is also legally vulnerable.

“We are starting to see some fissures and cracks in the doctrine,” Engstrom says. He and Weinstein cite recent legal cases that have opened up room for states to maneuver.

For instance, in 2003 the US Supreme Court invalidated a California law that required insurance companies to provide information about policies related to Holocaust victims and survivors. What makes the case significant, the researchers note, is that the Supreme Court, in finding the state law preempted, said that its resolution of federal-state conflict in future cases would turn at least in part on the strength and the importance of the state concern.

Climate change could turn military bases into foreign policy problems

“The idea is that, where the state is using its more traditional police powers to protect its people, the one-voice doctrine might need to be relaxed a bit,” Engstrom says.

California is not alone in its attempt to build a legal case and infrastructure for an expanded role in foreign policy. Massachusetts challenged the federal government in 2007 in a case targeting the Environmental Protection Agency’s failure to regulate carbon emissions. The state was able to convince the Supreme Court that the threat to its coastline and land was a sufficiently strong interest to justify a lawsuit, Engstrom says.

“That type of precedent is another type of crack. In effect, the Supreme Court is on record as saying that states have strong interests when it comes to climate change,” says Engstrom, who views this judicial precedent as key leverage for California going forward.

The paper appears in Washington Quarterly.

Source: Stanford University

Living underwater comes with size limits

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

While whales or large elephant seals might make you think animals that live in the ocean are unlimited in size, their growth is actually more constrained than those on land, research indicates.

“It’s not that water allows you to be a big mammal, it’s that you have to be a big mammal in water—you don’t have any other options.”

The finding is in contrast to previous theories suggesting that pressure on body size is more relaxed in water, perhaps because of the large environment and ability for animals to float rather than having to support their body weight on legs.

Instead, a new study shows that aquatic mammal size is bound at the small end by the need to retain heat and at the large end by difficulties getting enough food to survive.

“Many people have viewed going into the water as more freeing for mammals, but what we’re seeing is that it’s actually more constraining,” says coauthor Jonathan Payne, a professor of geological sciences at Stanford University’s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences. “It’s not that water allows you to be a big mammal, it’s that you have to be a big mammal in water—you don’t have any other options.”

Just right

Although mammals that live in water share a similarly oblong body shape, they are not closely related. Rather, seals and sea lions are closely related to dogs, manatees share ancestry with elephants, and whales and dolphins are related to hippos and other hoofed mammals.

To learn more about how these groups of land mammals took on their characteristic girth when they moved to the water, researchers compiled body masses for 3,859 living and 2,999 fossil mammal species from existing data sets. The analysis includes about 70 percent of living species and 25 percent of extinct species. They analyzed the data with a set of models developed in collaboration with Craig McClain of the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium.

From this analysis, researchers discovered that once land animals take to the water, they evolve very quickly toward their new size, converging at around 1,000 pounds. Smaller ancestors like dog relatives increased in size more than larger ancestors like hippos to reach that optimal weight, suggesting that bigger is better for aquatic life—but only up to a point.

The group points out that otters, which took to the water more recently, don’t follow that trend, perhaps because many otter species still live much of their lives on land.

“The key is having a phylogenetic tree to understand how these species are related to one another and the amount of time that has taken place between different evolutionary branching events,” says lead author graduate student Will Gearty.

“The tree of ancestral relationships allows us to build models based on data from modern species to predict what the ancestors’ body sizes would have been and see what evolutionary trajectories best fit with what we see in the modern day.”

Eating and temperature

Larger size helps aquatic mammals retain heat in water that’s lower than body temperature.

“When you’re very small, you lose heat back into the water so fast, there’s no way to eat enough food to keep up,” Payne says.

Body size isn’t the only way to deal with cold

Further, metabolism increases with size more than an animal’s ability to gather food, putting a boundary on how big aquatic mammals can grow.

“Basically, animals are machines that require energy to operate. This need for energy places hard limits on what animals can do and how big they can be,” says study coauthor McClain.

“The range of viable sizes for mammals in the ocean is actually smaller than the range of viable sizes on land,” Payne says. “To demonstrate that statistically and provide a theory behind it is something new.”

If otters are the exception at the small end, baleen whales prove the exception at the larger size. These whales expend much less energy on feeding than their toothed counterparts because they filter all their food, which makes them more efficient and allows them to grow larger than toothed whales.

“The sperm whale seems to be the largest you can get without a new adaptation,” Gearty says. “The only way to get as big as a baleen whale is to completely change how you’re eating.”

The researchers began working on the study in 2014 and they are currently assessing how well similar approaches can be used to explain body size distributions in other animal groups, especially those that have both terrestrial and aquatic species.

These ancient wolf-sized otters had fearsome jaws

“The hope is there’s simpler explanations that can apply to other species, including terrestrial animals,” Payne says. “It opens up some possibility that body size can be explained by basic principles of physics and chemistry.”

The researchers report their findings in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Source: Stanford University

Trump retreats from leadership yet again

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Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

A girl holds a white ballon at the border wall between Mexico and the U.S. in Chihuahua state, Mexico. Dec. 10, 2017. (AFP/Getty/Herika Martinez)

Ernesto Zedillo, a professor in the field of international economics and politics at Yale University and member of The Elders, was president of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. He is also a member of the Berggruen Institute‘s 21st Century Council.

When U.S. President Donald Trump visited the border between our two countries early this month to inspect prototypes for his infamous wall, everyone took notice. Yet, given the avalanche of attacks on international institutions from day one of the Trump administration, it is not surprising that it went relatively unnoticed when Nikki Haley, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, announced rather insolently that her country would abandon talks on the Global Compact on Migration in December.

This is a great pity because the very principles that compact would establish — emphasizing the rule of law and orderly migration — are precisely in the self-interest of the U.S.

All U.N. member states — the U.S. included — committed in September of 2016 to negotiate the compact with plans to approve it by the end of this year. This objective did not look overly ambitious. On the one hand, the compact is not legally binding, which should have made governments more accommodating. On the other hand, the negotiation was intended simply to agree on a set of general principles and commitments for countries to deal with international migration.

Both António Guterres, the Secretary General of the United Nations, and his predecessor, Ban Ki-moon, have been mindful of the complexity and contentiousness of the topic, and the U.N. leadership has all along infused the process with substantial and balanced realism. This is evidenced in U.N. documents that, along with the 2016 declaration, serve as key references for the ongoing negotiations.

One of these is a report prepared by the late Peter Sutherland, an admired advocate of multilateral international cooperation, reflecting on his decade of work as the U.N.’s special representative for international migration. The Sutherland report clearly admits that nations have no obligation to open their borders to all migrants. While the benefits of migration are tangible, he wrote, they do take time to materialize. But their associated costs can appear immediately, for individuals and even entire social groups. This is a situation that must be acknowledged and addressed with practical solutions.

The report also makes clear that although orderly migration depends on providing expanded pathways for legal entry, these must be subject to labor market considerations. Sutherland wasn’t shy to recommend circular, back-and-forth migration as an effective way to manage the movement of people between poorer countries and richer ones.

Another report, by Guterres himself, acknowledges at the outset that migration can be a source of division within and between states and societies, even though it is also an engine of economic growth, innovation and sustainable development. He argues that states and their citizens have legitimate reasons to demand both secure borders and the capacity to determine who enters and stays in their territory.

The report also warns that, since states can hold divergent perspectives on the benefits and costs of migration, governments must be mindful of each other’s specific priorities and challenges. Guterres therefore advises against ignoring citizens’ perceptions and concerns of migration policy.

One of the most serious concerns about irregular immigration into the U.S. is that of people from my own country, Mexico.

Two years ago, a group of individuals (of which I was a member) from both the U.S. and Mexico convened by Washington-based think tank the Center for Global Development published a report that contained a concrete proposal for how joint management of migration could maximize benefits for both states. Our suggested bilateral worker agreement was intended to curtail unlawful cross-border mobility, while also preserving priority for American workers for jobs in the U.S. and enhancing common security on both sides of our border.

But obviously, given the current political conditions in the U.S., our proposal is for the time being chimerical. Shared responsibility on this, and possibly on many other issues that are important for both countries, looks unachievable for now. This is a shame, because there are significant costs for both countries without an agreement, certainly for the U.S., which will continue to spend enormous resources on alternatives that will never deliver the expected results.

Unfortunately, when Haley announced the end of U.S. participation in the global compact on migration, she signaled the total rejection of a simple and sound principle. By declaring that America’s “decisions on immigration policies must always be made by Americans and Americans alone,” the U.S. government decided to abandon an agreement that’s in the best interests of Americans. Adopting such a posture is regrettable not only for the damage done to the multilateral system but also because it closes the door on initiatives that would address, cooperatively and more effectively, the problems we face in immigration policy today.

This undoubtedly will continue to be the case if the U.S. government decides to go ahead with the idea of building another wall on the American side of the border — fully, I might add, at American taxpayers’ expense. Obviously, under no circumstances will we Mexicans contribute to the materialization of such an extravagant, useless and offensive white elephant.

The global compact should constitute an agenda to strengthen the rule of law, bring the challenges that migration creates under control and respond effectively and beneficially to the realities of labor markets. Making migration safe, orderly and legal is necessarily an endeavor that must be responsibly shared among states. Precisely to better protect their own citizens, states must act together and cooperatively.

This was produced by The WorldPost, a partnership of the Berggruen Institute and The Washington Post.

Uniting the world through science: A view from academia

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

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The power of international partnerships in higher education

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

The Power Of International Partnerships In Higher Education

I accepted leadership of Yale University during a period of inspiring and sustained economic growth in Africa— eleven of the top twenty fastest growing economies in the world were from the continent. It was the ideal moment to build upon Yale’s partnerships in Africa and to bring related scholarship and education at the university into sharper focus. During my inauguration as the president of Yale in 2013, I announced Yale’s Africa Initiative. By working with collaborators in Ghana and other countries in Africa, I knew we could advance academic excellence at Yale and our partner institutions.

In such an interconnected world, there are many approaches for building international partnerships. At Yale, there are three distinct phases, and our work with colleagues in Africa illustrates their effectiveness in enhancing education, scholarship, and research.

The first phase is focused on our New Haven campus. To find partners, Yale invites students and faculty members from abroad to our university to enroll in our academic programs, to teach, or to conduct research. As international travel became more convenient and affordable, it became easier for us to attract talented scholars from diverse disciplines and of every career-level from hundreds and thousands of miles away.

In the last few decades, the number of foreign students and scholars coming to Yale has increased markedly. During this academic year, Yale had a record number of international student enrollments with 2,841 students from 121 countries—that represents about 22 percent of the student body. Overall, international student enrollment has increased by over 50 percent in the last decade.

The University of Ghana and Yale, for example, participate in student exchange programs through initiatives like the Fox Fellowship Program. Fellows contribute to interdisciplinary studies that benefit society. During this academic year, one of the Fox Fellows is researching developments in commercial agriculture in northern Ghana and advances in support structures to integrate smallholder farmers into agribusiness value chains. He is investigating why farmers adapt certain agricultural strategies and how their choices affect their communities. International students and scholars like this Fox Fellow have enriched Yale’s educational environment, providing unique experiences and perspectives that enhance our academic programs.

The second phase of forming international partnerships is focused outward. For example, some U.S. universities have established physical locations in other countries. However, the development of overseas locations has challenges. They are often costly, and distance can create or exacerbate gaps in institutional oversight. Moreover, a university can only afford to build and maintain a limited number of foreign campuses. That is why Yale establishes partnerships with institutions overseas like the University of Ghana, the University of Ghana Medical School, and the Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research.

Although the University of Ghana does not have a physical campus in the United States, and Yale does not have a physical presence in Ghana, our partnership is powerful. For example, research conducted through the collaboration has led to the discovery of an herbal product that can potentially be used to treat HIV infection and malaria. In addition, researchers from the University of Ghana Medical School and Yale University have identified low-cost biomarkers that can be used to monitor the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in children.

The third phase of global engagement involves creating networks—networks of students, alumni, faculty, programs, and institutions. These networks take many forms. There are social networks formed by an increasingly global alumni body who are not only unified by class year or by geographic location but also by interests and profession. We are also seeing the rise of academic research networks that transcend traditional disciplinary, cultural, and geographic boundaries. Yale’s Global Health Leadership Institute, for example, collaborates with international partners to develop and disseminate research for improving health systems in locations as disparate as China, Tanzania, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as in Ghana.

Universities have been developing strong scholastic networks of affiliated academic institutions, as well. The Yale School of Management’s Global Network for Advanced Management, comprised of thirty-two business schools from six continents, has four African business schools as members: the Lagos Business School; University of Cape Town Business School; University of Ghana Business School; and Strathmore Business School in Kenya, which joined this year and became the first member from East Africa. Instead of participating in typical bi-lateral relationships that provide one-on-one exchanges between two institutions, each member of the Global Network benefits from the dynamic perspectives and intellectual contributions of all the participating schools.

With continued technological advancements, we will also develop more web-based educational networks. We have already seen how innovations have made it possible for research universities to teach and conduct research in ways that could not have been imagined even ten years ago. Online platforms can reach many more students and offer flexibility in teaching formats. As the capacity and speed for delivering digital knowledge advance, we must create operating and quality standards to optimize opportunities for global interactions between universities, scholars, and students.

Through the Yale-Africa Initiative, our international partners have helped Yale transform educational experiences for our students and produce remarkable discoveries in business, public health, agriculture, and other sectors. In a world that is growing in complexity and becoming more interrelated, successful universities will embrace global networks and exchanges. By combining our diverse strengths and insights, we can create a shared future for the global community.

The Author is President and Chris Argyris Professor of Psychology, Yale University

Alum-led startup saves lives by ridding African market of counterfeit drugs

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Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

More than 100,000 people die every year in Africa from counterfeit medicines, and that number is increasing. Adebayo Alonge (SOM ’16), a student in the SOM Master of Advanced Management program, knows all too well. He nearly died from counterfeit drugs in a Nigerian hospital.

Alonge relayed that experience to Amy Kao (SOM ’17), a former consultant for the pharmaceutical industry, during the 2015 Yale Healthcare Hackathon. Today, Alonge is CEO and Kao is chief marketing officer of RxAll, a company they co-founded that’s building an artificial intelligence platform enabling spectrometers to authenticate legitimate medication.

Operating chiefly in African countries such as Nigeria and Kenya, where counterfeit drugs are widely available, the platform connects hospitals and pharmacies with verified medical wholesalers, informing pharmaceutical manufacturers of counterfeit products in real time. To date, RxAll has received funding from the Nigerian government and the Nigerian Ministry of Health, as well as InnovateHealth Yale and the Yale Entrepreneurial Institute.

“The product and business model have evolved over time, but the mission has always been to ensure that everyone has access to safe medicine and authentic drugs,” Kao explains. “In open markets in Africa, you can buy a drug that looks identical to the one you’re looking for, especially malaria medication. Even in hospitals, practitioners can’t tell what is real or fake.”

Kao and Alonge’s idea for RxAll stemmed from trying to finding ways to procure authentic medicines end to end on the supply chain. Kao describes the warehouse and logistics company as “an Amazon for authentic medicine” in Africa.

“Pharmacies and companies could go to our Nigeria website and order guaranteed authentic medicine, and we were able to ship the authentic medicines to them and trace these medicines from a reputable source,” she says.

While this solved the issue of counterfeit drugs, the co-founders were eager to address the root cause of who supplies such counterfeit drugs.

“We turned from a logistics model with our medication website to looping in data scientists at Yale to build a spectrometer,” explains Kao.

The process of spectroscopy involves emitting radio frequency waves on drug compounds to identify whether or not the drug is real. Despite the advanced technology required, it was important to Kao and Alonge to keep RxAll interactive. They developed an app customers could use at pharmacies when purchasing drugs: the customer could scan the drugs with their phone and receive notification of whether the product was real or fake. Kao reports a 99% match rate of the spectrometer, which has been tested with several drugs in a growing database.

Kao says spectrometers typically retail for around $20,000, but RxAll’s team has been able to reduce the price to $1,000, an incredible cost saving for pharma companies in rural areas that cannot afford expensive equipment. 

“We’re still trying to make a margin selling spectrometers and selling the data component, but in the future I see RxAll moving toward a model where we provide free spectrometers to local pharmacies and monetize the data,” Kao says.

With the company’s expansion to over 200 pharmacies in Nigeria and Kenya, the data it gathered became increasingly valuable as a new revenue stream.

“The data we collect from everyone who uses our product to identify medicine and the pharmacies they shop at has become of interest to pharma companies and regulators,” Kao says. “We’ve transitioned into a data company to sell pharmaceutical data to global companies such as Merck, MSD Singapore and Pfizer.”

Kao, who never imagined herself as an entrepreneur, credits Yale’s supportive environment and RxAll’s participation in the Yale Entrepreneurial Institute’s accelerator program as contributing factors to the company’s success.

“The resources at Yale are full of opportunities to bounce ideas off others,” she says. “Jennifer McFadden has been a tremendous help for us, as well as the social consciousness of SOM’s great community. RxAll was founded in New Haven and grown at Yale, and none of this could’ve happened without Yale’s entrepreneurship resources.”

With a considerable population of international students, Yale SOM provided Kao with the opportunity to speak to students from all over the world about their experiences with medicine in their home countries. Kao connects the social mission of RxAll with the strong social impact ethos of Yale SOM.

“That’s one of the reasons I chose SOM: social entrepreneurship and being dedicated to both business and society was so important to me,” she says. “With the data component, we’re starting to see a more scalable aspect of the business, but we are still faithful to our ultimate goal and social mission.”

Last year RxAll was named one of the Top 15 startups by G Startups Worldwide at the Global Mobile Internet Conference in Jakarta, Indonesia. Kao said RxAll’s participation and pitching at this event increased their footprint on a global scale, but particularly among the South East Asian markets RxAll is looking to target. RxAll also was accepted into the prestigious Merck Accelerator Program in Nairobi, Kenya, as well as the Catapult Accelerator Program in Norway. The latter provides $150,000 to accelerator companies, and Alonge is currently in Norway building entrepreneurial connections and refining RxAll’s ideas. 

RxAll is also pursuing a partnership with a leading Singapore-based pharmaceutical company, after RxAll was identified as a featured startup at the Digital Innovation Summit. According to Kao, RxAll remains involved with testing drugs and spectrometers with heavily counterfeited drugs in Africa and is piloting a similar research program in South East Asia.

RxAll hopes to raise $1 million in a Series A round after the completion of the Katapult accelerator in Norway, enabling it to build out the spectrometer technology and hire people full time to work on product and solidify operating platforms. To date, most of RxAll’s $200,000 funding has come from grants, accelerators and bootstrapping and has covered the cost of building out their prototype, platform and team. Kao says she anticipates “taking this forward” with a clear product and business plan. She adds that RxAll is working on a few deals with pharma companies, which will be another funding source and validation of the product. Ultimately, Kao stands by the philosophy of slow and healthy growth.

“Our company made a decision not to take equity from outside investors, and that was one of the best decisions we’ve ever made,” she says. “It’s tempting to talk to VCs who are throwing equity at you, but it’s important to listen to yourself and what you want the company to be to make the best-informed decision.”

As a female lead on a largely male team, Kao encourages women who are considering entrepreneurship to take the plunge, despite the occasional difficulties women face in the startup space.

“When you’re the only woman in a roomful of male VCs and angel investors, you have to trust your voice and stand your ground,” she says. “As a female, I encourage women to retain their femininity and not do business ‘like a man’ — I strive to understand them, not to replicate their stereotypical practices of dominance.”

Kao emphasizes that women often seek to connect with others by sharing their experiences, and she strives to continue offering a different perspective as a woman on her team.

Veena McCoole is the YaleWomen Innovation Fellow at Tsai CITY.

Environmental writer Paul Greenberg to speak about ‘The Omega Principle’

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Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

Paul Greenberg, a bestselling author who focuses on environmental issues, will speak at Yale on Thursday, March 29 as a Poynter Fellow in Journalism.

Greenberg will take part in two public events during his visit to Yale. He will present a talk, titled “The Omega Principle: Seafood and the Quest for a Longer Life and a Healthier Planet,” at noon in Burke Auditorium at Kroon Hall, 195 Prospect St. Lunch will be provided. Afterward, at 1:15p.m., Greenberg will take part in a Q&A in Rm. 321 in Kroon Hall. The events are free and open to the public.

Greenberg is the author of two award-winning books, and his third book, “The Omega Principle: Seafood and the Quest for a Longer Life and a Healthier Planet,” will be published in July. It investigates omega-3 fatty acids and their history, science, and business.

His first book, “Four Fish: The Future of the Last Wild Food,” was a New York Times bestseller and the winner of the 2011 James Beard Award for writing and literature. In it, Greenberg investigates the four fish that appear often on our menus — salmon, sea bass, cod, and tuna — and how they get from the ocean to our tables.

Greenberg’s TED talk has received over a million views, and he co-wrote a 2017 PBS Frontline documentary called “The Fish on My Plate.” His writing has appeared in publications including The New York Times, The New Yorker, and Yale Environment 360. Greenberg, himself a fisherman, has been a National Endowment for the Arts Literature Fellow and a Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation. He lives in New York City.

The Poynter Fellowship in Journalism was established by Nelson Poynter, who received his master’s degree in 1927 from Yale. The fellowship brings to campus distinguished reporters, editors and others who have made important contributions to the media. Among recent Poynter fellows are Alison Snyder, Eric Lipton, and Bernard Avishai.

Yale’s Greenberg World Fellows Program announces class of 2018

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Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

A South Korean army major, a Russian opposition party politician, and an Iraqi historian who bore witness to ISIS atrocities in Mosul are among the 16 men and women who have been selected as 2018 World Fellows.

This cohort brings the total number of World Fellows since the program’s start in 2002 to 327 Fellows, representing 90 countries. This year marks the 17th cohort of World Fellows.

“I am honored to announce the 2018 World Fellows,” said Emma Sky, director of the Maurice R. Greenberg World Fellows Program. “The talent, bravery, and resilience of these individuals is quite extraordinary. They are amazing role models for Yale students.”

The World Fellows program is Yale University’s signature global leadership development initiative and a core element of Yale’s ongoing commitment to internationalization. Each year, the University invites a group of exemplary mid-career professionals from a wide range of fields and countries for an intensive four-month period of academic enrichment and leadership training.

“I am thrilled to welcome the seventeenth class of World Fellows to campus,” said Yale President Peter Salovey. “These remarkable leaders and innovators bring immense expertise and insights to our university. While they are on campus, they contribute to our academic excellence through teaching, scholarship, and research, and they improve our community by participating in public service. Although they are on campus for four months, they remain engaged with Yale faculty, staff, and students long after the fellowship ends. They continue to be ambassadors for Yale and share our mission to improve the world today and for future generations.”

The mission of World Fellows is to cultivate and empower a network of globally engaged leaders committed to making the world a better place. The program is part of the Jackson Institute for Global Affairs, which prepares Yale students for global leadership and service through its master’s program in global affairs, master of advanced study in global affairs and undergraduate major in global affairs. 

Can you sue a self-driving car?

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Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

vehicles

Last week, the first fatality involving a self-driving Uber car occurred in Tempe, Arizona.

As new autonomous technologies develop, offering us self-driving cars, trains, buses, and drone deliveries, what are the legal issues? And what regulation do we need? Robert Rabin, a law professor at Stanford University, answers some questions.

Mystery solved: 6-inch skeleton isn’t an alien after all

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Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

New research stamps out any remaining questions about a tiny, mysterious skeleton’s home planet—it’s without a doubt human. And, more than that, the analysis answers questions about remains that have long been a genetic enigma.

After five years of deep genomic analysis, Garry Nolan, professor of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University, and Atul Butte, director of the Institute for Computational Health Sciences at the University of California, San Francisco, have pinpointed the mutations responsible for the anomalous specimen.

The researchers found mutations in not one but several genes known to govern bone development; what’s more, some of these molecular oddities have never been described before.

“To me, it seems that when doctors perform analyses for patients and their families, we’re often searching for one cause—one super-rare or unusual mutation that can explain the child’s ailment. But in this case, we’re pretty confident that multiple things went wrong,” says Butte.

Researchers discovered Ata more than a decade ago in an abandoned town in the Atacama Desert of Chile. (Credit: Emery Smith/Stanford)

It’s an indication, he says, that looking for a single mutation, or even mutations already known to cause a particular disease, can discourage researchers from looking for other potential genetic causes and, in turn, potential treatments for patients.

Mysterious remains

Scientists discovered the skeleton, nicknamed Ata, more than a decade ago in an abandoned town in the Atacama Desert of Chile. After trading hands and eventually finding a permanent home in Spain, the mummified specimen started to garner public attention.

“‘Look, whatever it is, if it’s got DNA, I can do the analysis.’”

Standing just 6 inches tall—about the length of a dollar bill—with an angular, elongated skull and sunken, slanted eye sockets, the internet began to bubble with other-worldly hullabaloo and talk of ET.

“I had heard about this specimen through a friend of mine, and I managed to get a picture of it,” Nolan says. “You can’t look at this specimen and not think it’s interesting; it’s quite dramatic. So I told my friend, ‘Look, whatever it is, if it’s got DNA, I can do the analysis.’”

With the help of Ralph Lachman, clinical professor of radiology at Stanford and an expert in a type of pediatric bone disease, Nolan set the record straight.

Their analysis points to a decisive conclusion: This was the skeleton of a human female, likely a fetus, that had suffered severe genetic mutations. In addition, Nolan saw that Ata, though most likely a fetus, had the bone composition of a six-year-old, an indication that she had a rare, bone-aging disorder.

To understand the genetic underpinnings of Ata’s physicality, Nolan turned to Butte for help in genomic evaluation. He accepted the challenge, running a work-up so comprehensive it nearly rose to the level of patient care. Butte notes that some people might wonder about the point of such in-depth analyses.

“We thought this would be an interesting exercise in applying the tools that we have today to really see what we could find,” he says. “The phenotype, the symptoms, and size of this girl were extremely unusual, and analyzing these kinds of really puzzling, old samples teaches us better how to analyze the DNA of kids today under current conditions.”

DNA rundown

To understand the genetic drivers at play, Butte and Nolan extracted a small DNA sample from Ata’s ribs and sequenced the entire genome. The skeleton is approximately 40 years old, so its DNA is modern and still relatively intact. Moreover, data collected from whole-genome sequencing showed that Ata’s molecular composition aligned with that of a human genome.

Two amazing fossil skeletons belong to new lizard

Nolan notes that 8 percent of the DNA was unmatchable with human DNA, but that was due to a degraded sample, not extraterrestrial biology. (Later, a more sophisticated analysis was able to match up to 98 percent of the DNA, according to Nolan.)

“For me, what really came of this study was the idea that we shouldn’t stop investigating when we find one gene that might explain a symptom.”

The genomic results confirmed Ata’s Chilean descent and turned up a slew of mutations in seven genes that separately or in combinations contribute to various bone deformities, facial malformations, or skeletal dysplasia, more commonly known as dwarfism. Some of these mutations, though found in genes already known to cause disease, had never before been associated with bone growth or developmental disorders.

Knowing these new mutational variants could be useful, Nolan says, because they add to the repository of known mutations to look for in humans with these kinds of bone or physical disorders.

“For me, what really came of this study was the idea that we shouldn’t stop investigating when we find one gene that might explain a symptom. It could be multiple things going wrong, and it’s worth getting a full explanation, especially as we head closer and closer to gene therapy,” Butte says. “We could presumably one day fix some of these disorders, and we’re going to want to make sure that if there’s one mutation, we know that—but if there’s more than one, we know that too.”

3D scans explore baby Tasmanian tigers too rare to dissect

Nolan and Butte are senior authors of the study, which appears in Genome Research.

Additional authors of the study are from Stanford; UC San Francisco; Roche Sequencing Solutions; National Autonomous University of Mexico; and Ultra Intelligence Corporation.

Support for the study came from the Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health, UCSF endowment funds, the Human Frontier Science Program, and Stanford.

Source: Hanae Armitage for Stanford University

Progress toward workplace gender equality has ‘stalled out’

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Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

Progress towards gender equality has slowed or stalled entirely since the latter half of the 20th century, when, for many measures of gender inequality, women rapidly made up ground, according to a report.

“We’re in a new world of snail’s pace change…”

The State of the Union report, published by the Stanford University Center on Poverty and Inequality, addresses key questions about gender inequality in the United States, such as whether occupational segregation is declining, why there is still so much sexual harassment and discrimination, and when gender gaps in earnings, employment, and related labor market outcomes might finally close.

By examining different types of gender inequality at once, it becomes possible to fashion a systematic and coordinated policy response, says David Grusky, director of the Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality. “Otherwise, it’s all too easy to default to piecemeal policies, each oriented to a single narrow-gauge problem.”

This comprehensive approach reveals that for many outcomes women are not making up ground nearly as rapidly as they did in the 1970s and 1980s. Following World War II, women entered the workforce in record numbers, but the increase in labor force participation for women has stagnated, and women remain less likely than men to participate in the formal labor force. Similarly, the wage gap declined rapidly in the 1970s and 1980s, but the rate of decline has since slowed.

The report also identifies some disparities that favor women rather than men. For example, on average women live five years longer than men, though life expectancy rates have converged in recent years.

“Gender inequality is not a unidimensional problem in which all gaps favor men or all gaps are changing in the same way,” says Marybeth Mattingly, a research consultant at the Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality and an author of two of the chapters in the report.

Although the pattern of trends is complicated, the stalling-out of previously strong trends shows up repeatedly in the report. This stalling-out is especially prominent when measuring whether women and men are segregated into different types of roles in the family, workplace, and community.

For example, women streamed into formerly male-dominated occupations in the 1970s and 1980s, but the rate of occupational integration slowed after 1990. Even today, relatively few women are a bus driver, carpenter, or computer scientist. If rates of integration since 2000 are extrapolated, it would take a full 330 years before the workplace becomes completely integrated.

“We’re in a new world of snail’s pace change,” says Kim Weeden, one of the authors of the chapter on occupational segregation.

To reduce gender inequality at work, focus on ‘small wins’

Why has it been so difficult for women to enter into historically male-dominated professions?

“Stereotypes and unconscious biases are getting in the way of faster social change,” says Shelley Correll, head of the Clayman Institute for Gender Research and an author of one of the chapters in the report.

“We still cling to the view that men and women are fundamentally different in interests and skills,” Correll says. This contributes to segregation both because “employers discriminate on the basis of these beliefs and workers sort themselves into gender-conforming roles.,

In the report’s concluding chapter, Correll and sociologist Marianne Cooper examine the most promising science-based policies for reducing gender inequality. Although “Congress remains gridlocked on gender and family issues,” they note that there have been “many promising developments at the state and local levels and in private industry, including the passage of paid leave policies and interventions within organizations to block unconscious biases from undervaluing women’s accomplishments.”

It’s also important to bear in mind, Grusky points out, that policy is not the only road to change. Even in a world in which standard gender policy has been sidelined, there’s still an important role for “bottom-up change” led by parents, millennials, and others.

“It’s becoming more common to encourage girls to take math classes or attend coding camps, to call out gender discrimination when it happens, to divide domestic chores somewhat more evenly, and to otherwise challenge conventional gender roles,” Grusky says.

These bottom-up efforts by early adopters may ultimately trigger a quick cascade of change, Grusky says.

Does gender equality result in fewer female STEM grads?

“A bottom-up revolution—a #MeToo movement writ large—has the potential to bring about a dramatic reduction in gender inequality.”

Source: Stephanie Garlow for Stanford University

You won’t believe how metrics drive clickbait news

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

New research shows how “clickbait” caught on in the modern newsroom and how data metrics have changed journalism.

“Articles that couldn’t be compared before now can be compared using a single metric: clicks. That transforms the internal dynamic of newsrooms.”

We’ve all been lured by captivating headlines from online news publications: You’ll never believe it. What happens next will shock you. Eight things you should never do.

Also known as clickbait—items with overpromising titles that sometimes deliver underwhelming content—these stories proliferate on news blogs and websites. Curious to know more, Angèle Christin, an assistant professor of communication at Stanford University, followed some reporters and editors who write them.

Data-driven news

Digital data and audience metrics have transformed journalism, says Christin in a study in the American Journal of Sociology that examines how metrics shape newsroom dynamics in the United States and France.

Thanks to readily available real-time analytics, journalists and editors now know more about their readers than ever before. They can track how many people read each article, how long readers stay on a page, and how they found the story. They know what gets read and what doesn’t—constituting a major transformation from traditional print journalism.

“Having this quantitative feedback really changes hierarchies between journalists within newsrooms,” Christin says. “Articles that couldn’t be compared before now can be compared using a single metric: clicks. That transforms the internal dynamic of newsrooms.”

“Clickbait can be used to subsidize stories that turn us into more enlightened citizens able to vote in an informed way.”

For most American news websites, such metrics are an important factor for online advertising revenue. The more unique visitors a website attracts and the more page views an article gets, the more money it can make from advertisers. This dynamic drives stories that get higher traffic rather than higher quality stories.

“It is impossible to look at the recent evolution of journalism without looking at the evolution of online advertising because the two things are completely interconnected,” says Christin. Search engines such as Google and social media sites including Facebook have also expanded options traditionally available to advertisers, putting more pressure on news sites to bring in traffic and compete for those advertisers.

“As online advertising became increasingly competitive, news organizations did what they had to do to survive in this new environment,” Christin says.

Market pressure might explain to some extent why editors and journalists chase clicks with stories about cats and celebrities instead of serious news topics such as foreign policy or the economy, but according to Christin’s research, it is more nuanced than that.

Many, many metrics

Christin wanted to better understand how journalists and editors really worked under this new hyperawareness of data. How are journalists making sense of these audience metrics? How do they react to traffic numbers? Are market forces really compromising their journalistic integrity?

Christin shadowed web journalists and editors for several years at two publications: one in the US and the other in France, where news media are heavily subsidized by the state. Because the state is a major actor in the media, French newsrooms do not encounter the same commercial pressures as their American counterparts, explains Christin. If revenues are out of the equation, then seemingly the pressure for clicks would not be as high.

But Christin found the opposite. At the French publication she studied, French writers fixated on clicks to a much higher extent than their US counterparts. They obsessed over clicks because they saw it as a symbol of their impact as a writer in shaping the public debate, Christin says.

“My findings are paradoxical: You would expect French journalists to be much more anti-clicks compared to American journalists because US journalism is much more market-driven,” says Christin, noting that American journalists viewed metrics as more of a technical game separate from their professional identity.

While American editors felt responsible for the commercial success of the publication, staffers pushed back at the pressures to achieve an economic objective. Staffers cited a professional ethos of editorial excellence that kept them buffered from market forces, Christin says.

Our news habits look a lot like Britain’s in 1655

“Even though the software for measuring clicks was exactly the same in the U.S. and France, I found strongly different interpretations of what audience metrics are about and divergent effects on newsroom dynamics in these two countries,” says Christin.

“We often think of the spread of new technologies as causing different cultures to converge, but journalists make sense of web analytics differently depending on the context. They put traffic numbers to their own uses and for their own ends.”

Journalism’s future

Setting advertising aside, Christin says traffic numbers might not be the right metric for newsrooms and journalists to track. There are alternative metrics that can emphasize quality over quantity such as the amount of time readers spend on a given news article. For journalists who want more influence over the public conversation, this might be a better metric.

In addition, Christin argues that clickbait might not necessarily be a bad thing if it can help cover the costs of producing high-quality content.

“Clickbait can be used to subsidize stories that turn us into more enlightened citizens able to vote in an informed way,” she says.

“There could be a double newsroom where one part of the newsroom focuses on more traffic-driven content that would subsidize investigative journalists who are doing more in-depth stories,” Christin says, pointing to some newsrooms—including Buzzfeed—that recently turned to this mixed model.

Scientists call for action in fight against ‘fake news’

As publishers deal with a range of problems that have led some to say that the newspaper industry is in crisis, Christin’s research shows that there is no simple or unique solution to sustain quality journalism online.

“But the whole system has to change in order for new metrics, including time engaged, to gain ground,” she says.

Source: Stanford University

Scientists create images with groups of bacteria

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

Researchers are able to shape the growth of bacterial communities by working with light and genetically engineered bacteria, creating intricate designs, from polka dots to stripes to circuits, overnight.

The technique, described in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, can achieve biofilms grown at a resolution of 25 micrometers, which is about one-tenth the size of a grain of table salt.

“Most of the bacteria on Earth live in biofilm communities and biofilms are very relevant in disease in health—plaque on our teeth or catheter-based bacterial infection, for example,” says Ingmar Riedel-Kruse, assistant professor of bioengineering at Stanford University and senior author of the paper. “Understanding how biofilms function is an important question on many levels.”

By using engineered bacteria that stick to surfaces when illuminated with light, researchers are able to pattern bacterial biofilms with 25 micrometer resolution. This image is of bacteria tagged with red fluorescent protein and the total size of the image is roughly 16 millimeters by 13 millimeters. (Credit: Xiaofan Jin/Ingmar Riedel-Kruse/Stanford)

The group says the technique could clarify how biofilms grow and lead to the development of novel biomaterials or synthetic microbial communities that could be implemented in small devices or systems, such as microfluidic chips or biofilm-based circuits.

Biofilm lithography

The group’s technique relies on E. coli bacteria they have genetically engineered to secrete a sticky protein in response to a particular wavelength of blue light.

“Biofilms exist in a social environment with other bacteria…”

When they shine the appropriate wavelength light in the desired pattern on a culture dish of modified bacteria, the bacteria stick to the lit areas, forming a biofilm in the shape of the pattern. The researchers call their technique biofilm lithography for its similarity to lithography used in making electronic circuits.

Other techniques for patterning bacterial communities exist, including depositing them with an inkjet printer or pre-patterning the culture surface with chemicals that bias bacterial growth in specific areas. However, biofilm lithography has the benefit of speed, simplicity, higher resolution, and compatibility with a variety of surface environments including closed microfluidic devices, the researchers says.

The intricate designs made possible with biofilm lithography could help in exploring the dynamics of bacterial communities.

“Biofilms exist in a social environment with other bacteria,” says Xiaofan Jin, a graduate student in bioengineering at Stanford and lead author of the paper. “Interactions between these bacteria are often dictated by where they grow relative to each other and this could be a great tool for specifying exactly when and where in a bacterial community certain species can live.”

Bacterial insight

While testing biofilm lithography, the researchers already happened upon a new insight. They had assumed that cells swimming in and out of illuminated regions would result in blurry patterns, but the designs turned out surprisingly sharp. These crisp images led the group to conclude that many of the bacteria must already be weakly bound to the culture surface. Rather than cruising around the dish, it appears that bacteria are continuously jumping on and off the surface.

Magnetic nanoparticles can bust biofilms

“In the literature, there are different models of how certain bacterial species form biofilms,” explains Riedel-Kruse. “We argue, at least with this species, that we provided additional evidence for that one hypothesis.”

By coincidence, the 25 micrometer resolution the researchers achieved with biofilms is similar to the first silicon photolithography, which contributed to the widespread success of silicon semiconductors. Similarly, the researchers see many versatile and impactful applications for their bacterial designs.

“We’re hoping this tool can be applied toward further understanding bacterial communities, both natural and synthetic,” says Jin. “We also see potential in having these communities do useful things, such as metabolic biosynthesis or distributed biocomputation. It may even be possible to create novel biomaterials such as conductive biofilm circuits.”

The researchers are currently taking steps to grow multiple strains of bacteria simultaneously through biofilm lithography to make multi-species communities. In particular, they hope to understand how bacteria in a biofilm may share antibiotic resistance—a question with significant clinical implications, as biofilms are well-known for being stubborn against antibiotic treatment.

This protein keeps bacteria from building biofilm defenses

Funding for this research came from Stanford Bio-X, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the American Cancer Society.

Source: Stanford University



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