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Día Internacional de la Mujer 2011.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Entrega de Silla de Ruedas.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad de Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Visita la página de “Código Ayuda A.C.” Aquí

Entrega de Reconocimiento por la AMS a la labor de Gabriela Goldsmith Presidenta de \\\\\\\"Código Ayuda A.C.” Más »

Día de la Niñez 2011 con nuestras socias y socios de San Lorenzo Tepaltitlán, Toluca, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Entrega de Silla de Ruedas.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

“Yo Me Declaro Defensor” de los Defensores de Derechos Humanos

Participación en la campaña “Yo Me Declaro Defensor” de los Defensores de Derechos Humanos por la Alta Comisionada de los Derechos Humanos de la ONU Navy Pillay. Más »

Entrega de Reconocimiento al Lic. Enrique Peña Nieto por su apoyo como gobernador a los grupos vulnerables de nuestra Asociación.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad en Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad en Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad en Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Thelma Dorantes Autora y Actriz principal de la obra de Teatro \\\\

Visita de Thelma Dorantes a las oficina de la Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" en Toluca, Estado de México. Más »

Thelma Dorantes Autora y Actriz principal de la obra de Teatro \\\\

Visita de Thelma Dorantes a las oficina de la Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" en Toluca, Estado de México. Más »

Thelma Dorantes Autora y Actriz principal de la obra de Teatro \\\\

Visita de Thelma Dorantes a las oficina de la Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" en Toluca, Estado de México. Más »

Premio Nacional del Trabajo 2012.

Entrega a los trabajadores de la Dirección de Organización y Desarrollo Administrativo de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México del Premio Nacional del Trabajo 2012 por la Secretaría de Trabajo y Previsión Social del Gobierno de México. Más »


Category Archives: News

Is it better to remember or forget? New seminar series launches on Friday

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: University of Oxford News

The first event in a new seminar series about post-war commemoration takes place on Friday evening (20 October).
In a free, public event, the Sierra Leone-British novelist and journalist Aminatta Forna will discuss her search for the truth about the death of her father, and explore questions about commemoration.

All are welcome and free tickets are available here. The series runs until next June, and the full programme of events can be found here.

One of the organisers is Oxford’s Dr Catherine Gilbert, who specialises in sub-Saharan African literatures of conflict and memory. She has kindly explained more about the series: 

“‘Post-War: Commemoration, Reconstruction, Reconciliation’ is the theme of a new International Seminar Series being held at the University of Oxford and Oxford Brookes University between October 2017 and June 2018. Funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, it will explore post-war memorialisation across cultures and consider what the future of commemoration might look like.

Central to national life, commemoration raises difficult questions. Is it better to remember or forget? The cynical history teacher in Alan Bennett’s play The History Boys believes that official remembrance of the war dead ‘veils the truth’ about those responsible for mass death. ‘There is no better way of forgetting something than by commemorating it,’ he declares. But what about those for whom there is no commemoration? What about the individuals and societies who want to remember the truth about how and why their loved ones died?

The first speaker in the Series, the Sierra Leone-British novelist and journalist Aminatta Forna, will tackle precisely these questions. Forna was determined to know the truth about the death of her father, the doctor and politician Mohamed Sorie Forna. In her memoir, The Devil that Danced on the Water, she describes the journey she undertook to the country of her childhood to uncover the facts about his execution in 1975.

Forcing herself to speak calmly with those who lied at his trial, she pieces together the last days of her father’s life leading up to his hanging on false charges of treason. After 25 years of not knowing, Forna finally discovers where her father’s body was covered in acid and unceremoniously buried.

Forna manages to lift the veil on the past, but at what cost? The knowledge that she had sought for so many years is a heavy burden to bear: ‘I had wanted to know and yet the knowledge seemed to defeat me. … To know now, twenty-five years too late, left a feeling of overwhelming powerlessness, of a kind I had never experienced before. I had the knowledge I had desired for so long – and what good did it do?’

This sense of powerlessness is common to many survivors of violent conflict, genocide and human rights violations. Survivors of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda come to mind here, some of whom have spent more than two decades trying to find out what happened to their loved ones. Not knowing the truth can be torturous, while possessing this knowledge can be an insupportable burden, a burden that must nevertheless be carried for the rest of their lives.

Forna questions what to do with this unbearable knowledge. When she visited the site where her father’s body lies, she asked: ‘What did I want to mark my father’s memory now: a headstone? A plaque? A monument? Blocks of stone or concrete that would crumble away in this lonely place?’ Instead, she turned to writing: upon her return from Sierra Leone, she says, ‘I sat down in my London study and I began to write. His story. My story.’ Forna is writing history – both personal and political. 

With The Devil that Danced on the Water, Forna has created a form of textual commemoration, both for herself and for others, reconstructing her father’s story so that he can be remembered and the truth about his death can be known. Where there is no grave, no commemorative monument, writing can fulfil this role.

While it may be that commemoration can only ever be partial, only recognising one aspect of a story, not commemorating at all can be equally dangerous and harmful to individuals and groups who seek recognition and truth. Writers like Forna challenge us to engage critically with commemoration, to reflect on our need to remember and to contemplate monuments other than those made of stone.

Aminatta Forna will be speaking at the University of Oxford on Friday 20th October as part of the Seminar Series Post-War: Commemoration, Reconstruction, Reconciliation in collaboration with Oxford Brookes University. The Series is funded by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, in memory of John E. Sawyer.

Reflections of an apprentice forester

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Yale University World & Environment News

Last summer, Andy joined the Apprentice Forester Internship Program, or the “Forest Crew,” at the school-owned Yale Myers Forest. We chatted with him about his experience and what it means to be a “Forester.” 
What motivated you to join the forester apprenticeship program?  
Forestry is not just a science it’s an art, so getting out into the field is critical to building expertise.You don’t get a sense for the art of it all until you’re out in the middle of a stand of trees. For that reason,spending as much time as possible in the Yale forests has been an important part of my time at F&ES. It’s a unique forest in that it’s been owned by Yale and operated by its academics for 100 years. It’s a place of academic instruction and research, while being a working forest. [A working forest means that trees are harvested for income.]Forest Crew was an opportunity to try stuff out and get some real “boots on the ground” experience. I’ve worked with forested land in different ways, but I’ve never been fully responsible for managing it. That’s something Iaspire to in my career and this apprenticeship helped fill that gap. I had never used a chainsaw before. I had never marked a treefor harvest. The decision to cut down a tree leaves a lasting mark on the landscape. If I could come back in 150 years, the forest composition would be, in part, a function of the decisions that I made.

At The HUB, a celebration of art, technology, and innovation

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: MIT News

The central hub of Boston’s 2017 HUBweek celebration last week was a remarkable sight: a sprawling village of over 80 shipping containers transformed into a brightly painted celebration of art, technology, and innovation, bustling with people exploring the towering crates.

Perhaps no container better celebrated the intersection of art and technology than the MIT — For a Better World exhibit, where visitors could watch colorful murals come to life with augmented reality and talk to student researchers about technology ranging from a rubbery robot that identifies leaky pipes, to an ankle exoskeleton that gives walkers a boost.

The exhibit embodied the MIT Campaign for a Better World, which has a simple goal: to use the vision and talent of people at MIT to take on urgent global challenges.

“The idea that MIT is working to make a better world is something that we want to get out to the greater community beyond MIT,” explains Barbara Malec, MIT’s creative director of Resource Development and one of the masterminds behind the display. “I think the more people know about and experience MIT, the more broadly we can continue our tradition of delivering new knowledge and solutions to the world.”

HUBweek is a celebration of creativity across Greater Boston, which took place Oct. 10 to 15. MIT is one of the co-founders of HUBweek, along with Harvard University, The Boston Globe and Massachusetts General Hospital. A new feature of this year’s festivities was The HUB, a central gathering space in Boston’s City Hall Plaza, centered around a temporary village of shipping containers, art exhibits, and geodesic domes showcasing the region’s inventiveness.

For their exhibit, Malec and senior designer Eric Keezer drew inspiration from The Borderline Mural Project, where 25 MIT-affiliated artists covered 200 feet of the tunnels under the campus with murals that can be experienced in augmented reality (AR). Pearl Lee, a senior in biological engineering who was one of the artists, took on the challenge of recruiting student artists for seven 6 foot by 6 foot murals at MIT’s HUBweek exhibit. Lee put out a call for artists in late August and worked diligently with the selected students to help them design and create their murals in just a few short weeks.  

“It’s all to promote the theme of MIT making a better world, so it was each artist’s interpretation of that,” Lee says. “We wanted to bring together science and art, so we thought it was a really good idea to showcase that, hey look, we can be artistic, but also of course because we’re nerds, we can add this [augmented reality] component and make it come to life.”

The murals were dazzling, hung on the walls of a simple, white shipping container to create what felt like an outdoor art gallery. As people continuously wandered through on Thursday afternoon, they couldn’t help but pull out their phones, download the Artvive app, and watch on their screens as animations were revealed within the murals.

At one end of the AR-enhanced exhibit, a violin splashed with cells started to play, the bow (overlaid with C15H20O6, the chemical formula for rosin) drawing back and forth across vibrating fluorescent strings. Next to it, black line drawings of women in science on a white canvas burst into color, with deep purple, yellow, and blue hues. In the most data-driven mural, rainbow swirls representing particles moving on winds around Earth were set in motion, rotating in clockwise and counterclockwise circles. And then there was a little girl on a kite flying through space on a journey of exploration and discovery as a beaver in a space suit drifted by.

While the murals were an artistic interpretation of MIT — For a Better World, the demos in front of the container offered concrete examples of how MIT researchers are tackling big problems.

One was Robot Daisy, a soft, rubbery robot that looks like an oversized badminton birdie. The bot, which is designed to move through municipal water pipes, detects leaks when suction created by escaping water tugs on its sensor-laden wings. The idea is to identify leaks at an early stage: Currently water systems lose 20 percent of their water to leaks, and most of the leaks are not found until they are big enough to do damage to nearby streets, homes, and businesses. PhD candidate You Wu, master’s candidate Tyler Okamoto, and senior Elizabeth Mittmann, from the Mechatronics Research Lab in the Department of Mechancial Engineering, were on site Thursday talking to people about the device and encouraging them to pick it up and play with it.   

“We got a lot of traffic here, all Boston locals,” Wu told MIT News. “And every time I mention, ‘have you seen a water main break?’ They’re like ‘yup,’ and they care about this.”

“There’s all different types of people here, and I felt like I could make a connection with all of them,” Okamoto added.  

Pipeguard Robotics, the team behind Robot Daisy, also took home the grand prize at Saturday’s Demo Day pitch competition.

Matt Weber, a student in the Harvard-MIT Program in Health Science and Technology,  arrived Thursday wearing robotic ankle exoskeletons, or “exoboots,” which he said attracted some strange looks on the subway. The battery-powered device reduces calf strain during walking, using motors and electronics. “With every step you take, it gives you a little kick to get into the next step,” he told a group that gathered to ask questions.  

Weber, who works with MIT Professor Hugh Herr, says the device was initially developed for the military, but the researchers are now turning their attention to other uses, such as for people who have weakened calves due to stroke or muscular dystrophy, or people who walk long distances for work.

In contrast to the visual feast of the MIT — For a Better World exhibit, the MIT Media Lab’s City Symphonies exhibit offered an auditory treat. Passersby couldn’t help but pause at the black-curtained opening of the simple, gray container and step through the curtains. First, they were drawn in by a bold, unusual symphonic music. Next, they were entranced by two large high-definition displays playing vibrant scenes from nature and city settings.

The exhibit, one of the few with a sound component, represents the City Symphony projects headed by Professor Tod Machover at the MIT Media Lab. In each City Symphony, technologies developed by Machover and his Opera of the Future Group allow anyone to contribute audio, video, original compositions using Hyperscore software, voices, and more, and to help shape the feel and story of each “symphony” through a new kind of collective creativity. Machover then weaves these materials into a piece of music that’s performed by the major orchestra in that city. So far, Machover and his team have created City Symphonies for cities around the world, including Toronto, Edinburgh, Perth, and Detroit, and a large project is currently underway in Philadelphia.

“I think that’s one of the really neat things about it, is that it brings together a group of people who otherwise wouldn’t meet each other but are connected through music and careful listening,” explains Charles Holbrow, a PhD candidate at the Media Lab who spoke with visitors at the exhibit. “We have been asked by HUBweek to create a City Symphony right here in Boston, so right now we’re kind of asking the question, we want to do this in Boston — how are we going to do it? That’s why we’re here. We want to meet people who live in greater Boston and ask them, OK, what does Boston sound like to you?”

President Trump admits he’s trying to kill Obamacare. That’s illegal.

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Yale University Science & Health News

Modern American history has never seen as full-scale an effort to sabotage a valid law as we have with President Trump and the Affordable Care Act — a law whose legality has been upheld twice by the US Supreme Court.

The president has a legal obligation, under Article II of the US Constitution, to “take Care that the laws be faithfully executed.” That means he must make sure that our laws are implemented in good faith and that he uses his executive discretion reasonably toward that end.

His agencies likewise have a legal obligation, under the Administrative Procedure Act — the statute that sets the rules for our entire federal regulatory apparatus — not to use their power to engage in arbitrary action.

The intentional, multi-pronged sabotage of the ACA that we have seen over the past nine months — reaching new heights since attempts by Congress to repeal the law failed — violates both Trump’s constitutional obligations and quite possibly the obligations of his Department of Health and Human Services.

Trump does not get to say that he can best help the law by killing it and thereby forcing Congress to start afresh. His obligation is to “take care” that the laws that are already on the books are carried out. Since he has flouted this obligation, lawsuits by individuals and states harmed by the damage he causes may now be in order.

To be sure, the take care clause is rarely invoked. Indeed, it does not appear ever to have been used successfully in modern times as an offensive tool against a president. Cases are rare because most experts agree that the president must have discretion with respect to how he enforces a law; drawing lines that separate when that discretion is exercised reasonably and, instead, when it changes too much of the law to be “faithful” to it (as the clause requires) is extremely difficult.

But whatever divides exist about invoking the take care clause, this is the extreme case in which it is clear-cut that the clause has been violated. Far from using his power to faithfully implement the ACA, the president is actively using his power to destroy it. He does not hide his motives.

A multi-front attack on the law

Let’s review the most recent acts of sabotage. The ACA requires the federal government to support the open enrollment period — in which individuals must sign up for insurance or lose their chance to do so. The ACA requires the federal government to, among other things, maintain a website and work with local “navigators” and other groups to educate consumers and encourage them to sign up for insurance.

Trump instead has set out to make open enrollment a failure.

He cut the enrollment period in half, from three months to six weeks. He shut down the federal enrollment website for nearly 12 hours every Sunday during the period — a crucial window when working Americans might enroll. He has canceled already- scheduled events in which federal officials had planned to visit states and help with enrollment. He cut advertising for enrollment by 90 percent, from $100 million to $10 million, even though his administration charged insurers on the exchanges user fees to generate money for that same advertising. (Those fees far exceeded $10 million.)

One day before the new budget year began on September 1, he announced a 40 percent cut to those navigator programs — after promising them $60 million in grants in May, and after his administration had said it would support navigators in order to partly offset the obstacles erected by the curtailed enrollment period.

Why would President Trump want to stifle open enrollment? Because that would seriously weaken the ACA’s insurance markets, which require a mix of healthy and sick customers to be stable. In line with that ambition, he also signed an executive order last week that directs his agencies to consider policies that would allow the sale of new group and short-term plans lacking many ACA protections. These alternative plans are likely to pull even more healthy individuals out of the insurance markets.

The same day, Trump announced his plan to cut off important cost-sharing payments that the ACA promises to insurers to compensate them for reducing what individuals have to pay in premiums. A case is pending in federal court challenging the legality of those payments. The president’s defenders may therefore argue that he has more leeway to resist implementation of that requirement.

Even so, nearly every single week for past last nine months, Trump has threatened to cut off these payments, creating extreme instability in the insurance industry. In response, some insurers had already raised rates for 2018. So the damage was done well before the official policy was announced. And Trump has made clear that his goal in cutting off the funds is harming the law. He tweeted the same day the policy was announced: “ObamaCare is causing such grief and tragedy for so many. It is being dismantled …”

Former White House adviser Steve Bannon was blunter. Trump wanted to “blow that thing up,” he said this week.

Distinguishing this case from other examples of presidential discretion

This situation is very different from those in which scholars have disagreed over whether the take care clause applies. This is not about whether the president must defend a law he thinks is unconstitutional before the Supreme Court has ruled. That question came up in the context of same-sex marriage, when President Obama declined to defend the constitutionality of the federal Defense of Marriage Act, or DOMA. Obamacare, in contrast, has survived two major showdowns in the Supreme Court. (And, notably, Obama enforced DOMA while the case was pending, even as he declined to defend it.)

This is also not a case in which the president faces tough decisions about how to use limited resources to achieve policy priorities. Such questions arose in last year’s battles over Obama’s immigration policies.

Trump’s strangulation of broad parts of the ACA does not stem from his decision to prioritize what he views as other, more important sections of the law. No budgetary or policy justification has been offered by the White House for canceling enrollment support; nor has anyone claimed taxpayers will be saved money. In fact, the Congressional Budget Office estimates that the president’s efforts to shut down cost-sharing reduction payments to insurance companies will cost the federal government almost $200 billion.

(That’s because some insurance premiums will rise by more than 20 percent, in response. And when the premiums rise, the financial subsidies the ACA promises individuals to help them buy insurance must also rise, with the government footing the bill.)

Nor is HHS now using time and money saved by undermining one part of the law in order to buttress another part. Further betraying Trump’s unfaithful stewardship of the law, even states that have requested waivers to pursue conservative reforms are being stonewalled by the administration. News reports say the president has told his agency staff that he does not want any such waivers approved, lest they stabilize the insurance markets.

Finally, this is also not a case about the president underenforcing a law to temporarily smooth administrative implementation of it. President Obama delayed enforcement of several ACA deadlines, including the requirement that employers provide insurance, because he believed that delay was necessary for the law to ultimately succeed. He was criticized for that, and some critics cited the take care clause.

Trump’s (stated) motives matter to the legal case against him

Nonetheless, President Obama offered reasons why he believed his actions would ultimately help the law. In contrast, Trump, after chiding Congress for failing to abide by its “pledges” to repeal the ACA, tweeted that he was taking on that job himself: “So we’re going a little different route. … [I]n the end, it’s going to be just as effective.”

And this week he added, “Obamacare is dead. It’s finished. It’s gone.”

Motive matters, with respect to whether the president exercises his power legally. If the president exercises his discretion to further the purpose of a statute, he complies with the take care clause. If he uses his power pretextually or unreasonably, he violates the Constitution. President Trump’s motives are unambiguous.

Congress could jump in and fix some of the problems Trump is causing. It could pass a statute clarifying the propriety of the cost-sharing reduction payments that Trump ended. It also could override by statute any agency regulation that, as in the case of last week’s executive order, aims to destabilize the insurance markets. It would certainly be much better for our country for Congress to act than for citizens or states to have to sue the executive branch. But if Congress doesn’t act, lawsuits may be an important tool.

The president has a right not to like the ACA. But so long as it is the law of the land, he does not have the right to undermine it through the use of executive power.

“Faithful” execution of a law that is validly on the books is what the words of the Constitution require of Trump — until Congress decides otherwise.

Abbe R. Gluck is a professor of law and the faculty director of the Solomon Center for Health Law and Policy at Yale Law School.

The Big Idea is Vox’s home for smart discussion of the most important issues and ideas in politics, science, and culture — typically by outside contributors. If you have an idea for a piece, pitch us at thebigidea@vox.com.

Architecture graduate student Baronian wins LafargeHolcim Next Generation Award for Sustainable Construction

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Princeton News

Georgina Baronian, a third-year master’s student in architecture at Princeton, was awarded the Next Generation 1st Prize at the LafargeHolcim Awards for Sustainable Construction presented in Chicago on Oct. 12.

Baronian’s project, “Prototype for an Evaporative Cooling Roof,” is an investigation on cooling large-scale structures using an evaporating layer of water on the roof to provide radiant cooling and act as a solar reflector. 

The LafargeHolcim Foundation for Sustainable Construction was created in 2003 to raise awareness of the important role that architecture, engineering, urban planning and the building industry have in achieving a more sustainable future. The foundation is a nonprofit organization supporting initiatives that combine sustainable construction with architectural excellence and enhanced quality of life. The LafargeHolcim Awards are regarded as the world’s most significant competition for sustainable design.

The competition is for projects at an advanced stage of design, not finished works. It seeks designs that go beyond current standards, showcase sustainable responses to technological, environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues affecting contemporary construction, and deliver new, surprising and visionary solutions to the way we build.

The international jury of architects noted that Baronian’s project “investigates how to cool large structures with minimal means. With the objective in mind to reduce the building’s energy load, (particularly the deployment of nonrenewable resources), a thin layer of water is introduced as an additional roof layer —acting as a solar reflector, while providing thermal insulation. Whereas technical considerations are at the core of the project, the study culminates in a design of a big-box structure that is as reduced in its formal manifestation as it is beautiful in its aesthetic simplicity.”

Study shows how water could have flowed on ‘cold and icy’ ancient Mars

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Astrobiology Magazine: Latest News

Martian Valleys. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Arizona State University

For scientists trying to understand what ancient Mars might have been like, the red planet sends some mixed signals. Water-carved valleys and lakebeds leave little doubt that water once flowed on the surface. But climate models for early Mars suggest average temperatures around the globe stayed well below freezing.

A recent study led by Brown University geologists offers a potential bridge between the “warm and wet” story told by Martian geology and the “cold and icy” past suggested by atmospheric models. The study shows that it’s plausible, even if Mars was generally frozen over, that peak daily temperatures in summer might sneak above freezing just enough to cause melting at the edges of glaciers. That meltwater, produced in relatively small amounts year after year, could have been enough to carve the features observed on the planet today, the researchers conclude.

The study is published online in the journal Icarus. Ashley Palumbo, a Ph.D. student at Brown, led the work with Jim Head, a professor in Brown’s Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Science, and Robin Wordsworth, a professor in Harvard’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

Palumbo says the research was inspired by climate dynamics found here on Earth.

“We see this in the Antarctic Dry Valleys, where seasonal temperature variation is sufficient to form and sustain lakes even though mean annual temperature is well below freezing,” Palumbo said. “We wanted to see if something similar might be possible for ancient Mars.”

The researchers started with a state-of-the-art climate model for Mars — one that assumes an ancient atmosphere composed largely of carbon dioxide (as it is today). The model generally produces a cold and icy early Mars, partly because the sun’s energy output is thought to have been much weaker early in solar system history. The researchers ran the model for a broad parameter space for variables that may have been important around 4 billion years ago when the iconic valley networks on the planet’s southern highlands were formed.

While scientists generally agree that the Martian atmosphere was thicker in the past, it’s not clear just how thick it actually was. Likewise, while most researchers agree that the atmosphere was mostly carbon dioxide, there may have been small amounts of other greenhouse gases present. So Palumbo and her colleagues ran the model with various plausible atmospheric thicknesses and extra amounts of greenhouse warming.

It’s also not known exactly what the variations in Mars’ orbit might have been like 4 billion years ago, so the researchers tested a range of plausible orbital scenarios. They tested different degrees of axis tilt, which influences how much sunlight the planet’s upper and lower latitudes receive, as well as different degrees of eccentricity — the extent to which the planet’s orbit around the sun deviates from a circle, which can amplify seasonal temperature changes.

The model produced scenarios in which ice covered the region near the location of the valley networks. And while the planet’s mean annual temperature in those scenarios stayed well below freezing, the model produced peak summertime temperatures in the southern highlands that rose above freezing.

In order for this mechanism to possibly explain the valley networks, it must produce the correct volume of water in the time duration of valley network formation, and the water must run off on the surface at rates comparable to those required for valley network incision.

A few years ago, Head and Eliot Rosenberg, an undergraduate at Brown at the time who has since graduated, published an estimate of the minimum amount of water required to carve the largest of the valleys. Using that as a guide, along with estimates of necessary runoff rates and the duration of valley network formation from other studies, Palumbo showed that model runs in which the Martian orbit was highly eccentric did indeed meet these criteria. That degree of eccentricity required is well within the range of possible orbits for Mars 4 billion years ago, Palumbo says.

Taken together, Palumbo says, the results offer a potential means of reconciling the geological evidence for flowing water on early Mars with the atmospheric evidence for a cold and icy planet.

“This work adds a plausible hypothesis to explain the way in which liquid water could have formed on early Mars, in a manner similar to the seasonal melting that produces the streams and lakes we observe during our field work in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys,” Head said.  “We are currently exploring additional candidate warming mechanisms, including volcanism and impact cratering, that might also contribute to melting of a cold and icy early Mars.”

So while the work doesn’t close the “cold and icy” versus “warm and wet” debate, it does make the case that a mostly frozen early Mars was a distinct possibility.

Singers get preventive care for vulnerable vocal cords at USC Voice Center

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: University of Southern California

Picture a pair of tiny violin bows, each no longer than a thumbnail clipping, lodged horizontally in your windpipe. Halfway between the chin and collarbone, they dance and vibrate at your command. For higher pitches, they stretch thin. For lower tones, they shorten.

Meet your vocal cords. Because they’re hidden from view, most people take them for granted. That’s a luxury professional singers can’t afford.

Lynn Helding held out her thumbnails.

“Imagine putting your entire career on two little structures that small,” she said. “It’s pretty scary. Singers very early on have to learn that it’s all about prevention.”

Few vocalists have seen their own vocal cords — or as they are more correctly described, their vocal folds — but Helding, an associate professor of vocal pedagogy at the USC Thornton School of Music, is on a mission to remedy that. Together with Michael Johns, Karla O’Dell and Lindsay Reder, laryngologists at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, Helding has been introducing voice students to their instruments through annual voice screening clinics — part of a health and wellness push that’s catching fire at top-tier music schools.

There’s a special synergy between vocalists and laryngologists, said Johns, who founded Emory University’s interdisciplinary voice center before joining the Keck School of Medicine’s faculty as founding director the USC Voice Center.

Vocalists are our athletes, and we are their sports medicine doctors.

Michael Johns

“Vocalists are our athletes,” he said, “and we are their sports medicine doctors.”

A first glimpse

On Sept. 15, 24 students in USC Thornton’s Vocal Arts & Opera program streamed into the USC Voice Center at its new downtown facility on Flower Street. Reder, O’Dell and Johns welcomed the students into a seminar room, where they explained the screening process. Throughout the day, a staff of speech language pathologists was made available to the students to answer questions.

Karla O’Dell, a laryngologist with Keck Medicine of USC, speaks with USC Thornton Vocal Arts students about the movement of the vocal cords. (USC Photo/Ricardo Carrasco III)

For many of the students attending the screening, vocal cord imaging is no longer a novelty. Tenor Allan Pearcy Galeana was doing it for the fifth time. A junior in Vocal Arts, he had first glimpsed his vocal folds a year ago at the first USC voice screening event. Bouts of laryngitis and strep throat have since brought him back for evaluations.

“Today I was doing a lot of ‘einsatz’ stuff — beginning pitches, when the vocal folds are together,” he explained. The goal is to gently bring them together at the onset of singing. Jerky, aspirated starts can damage the muscle. “I wanted to see if I was doing that properly. Fortunately, I was,” Galeana said, with a bright smile.

Voice boxers

The annual screenings are Helding’s and Reder’s joint brainchild. Both are active leaders in vocology — the interdisciplinary study of voice science.

Helding, besides being a university voice professor and former professional singer, is a vocologist and founding president of the Pan American Vocology Association. She joined USC’s faculty in 2015 eager to collaborate with the Keck School’s world-class laryngologists.

A subspecialty of otolaryngology, laryngology focuses on diseases of the larynx, or voice box. It’s a small but important niche. Nationally, there are only about 200 laryngologists, with fewer than 10 based in Los Angeles. The USC Voice Center brings together an interdisciplinary team laser-focused on vocal disease and preventive health.

If you get in trouble as a singer, you don’t just go to your family physician.

Lynn Helding

“If you get in trouble as a singer, you don’t just go to your family physician,” Helding tells her students. “You go to a laryngologist. You need to entrust your care to someone who really understands the voice.”

Last year’s first free screening brought 24 students to the USC Voice Center’s spacious new downtown headquarters, and the same number recently returned. Helding teaches a required course for Vocal Arts & Opera majors on the physiology and mechanics of vocal production, and many of the students at the screening were veterans of her class.

“It’s cool to see, in our own body, what we’ve been learning about,” said Kiley Hazelton, a master’s student at USC Thornton.

Almost spiritual

The first encounter with one’s vocal folds can be a powerful experience for singers. Helding describes it as a “revelation” and “almost spiritual.”

It can also be very reassuring. Playing an invisible instrument no bigger than thumbnail clippings is nerve-wracking for the artist whose livelihood depends on it.

“Unlike your elbow or knee, if you injure your vocal cords, you can’t see the injury and you may not feel pain,” said Reder, whose specialties, besides preventive care for high-end elite voices, include airway scarring, larynx cancers and unsedated laryngeal surgery.

Melissa Treinkman, a DMA candidate and working member of the L.A. Opera chorus, was nervous before her first USC voice screening in 2016.

“I was afraid what they’d find,” she recalled. “This year I wasn’t nervous. I assumed everything was OK. I feel like I have very healthy vocal folds. I take good care of them.”

Sing wet

If the vocal cords are like tiny violin bows, then water is the rosin that helps them glide smoothly together, producing luscious sound. Sheathed in a jelly-like mucous layer that promotes vibration, vocal folds are meant to stay wet. At very high pitches, the mucosal edges are the only surfaces making contact. A dry larynx is a huge red flag.

Johns, the USC Voice Center’s director and head of laryngology at the Keck School, illustrated the point by blowing a raspberry.

“If your lips are dry, you can’t generate the vibration you want. But if they’re moist …” he said, licking his lips, “prrrrrrrrr.” He produces an admirable Bronx cheer.

Which is why singers are seldom seen without their water bottles.

“Sing wet, pee pale,” Helding says brightly — a phrase coined by pioneering laryngologist Van Lawrence that she drills into her student’s heads. Sixty-four ounces a day is the minimum requirement for vocal health, and inhaling steam or saline is an excellent topical moisturizer.

“It’s unfortunate, but when singers go home at night, they don’t put their voice on the shelf,” Helding said. “They keep using it for everyday life. They have a responsibility to learn about their body and take really good care of it.”

Voice health affects many other professionals besides singers. Teachers, actors, clergy and lawyers, to name a few. Any job that requires speaking six hours a day is hard on the larynx.

But singers are the thoroughbreds of the vocal world, pushing the boundaries of what’s vocally possible. As scoping technology advances, look for mobile laryngology screenings to go on the road and backstage whenever there’s a singer in distress.

The ability to visualize the vocal folds through hi-definition imagining gives today’s vocalists a chance to keep their instrument in tip-top condition for life.

“I feel hopeful that I can keep improving my technique because I know more about my voice,” said Hazelton, who recently landed a principal role in USC Thornton’s fall opera, Handel’s Alcina. “I’ve seen it and I know how it works. I’m improving my art via science.”

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USC seeks a better understanding of Alzheimer’s among Mexican-Americans

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: University of Southern California

Researchers at the USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute will be responsible for 4,000 brain scans during the five-year study. (Photo/Ricardo Carrasco III)
USC is taking part in a collaborative project that aims to gain a better understanding of Alzheimer’s disease among Mexican-Americans, who account for nearly one-fifth of the U.S. population. A recent review estimated that only 3 percent of Alzheimer’s disease studies include Latinos in their analyses.

To help change that, the USC Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute at the Keck School of Medicine of USC is teaming up with researchers from the University of North Texas Health Science Center and the University of California, San Francisco on the project called Health and Aging Brain Among Latino Elders.

“Most of the archives around the world have insufficient numbers of underrepresented groups,” said Arthur W. Toga, one of the principal investigators of the study. “It’s important for people of all races and ethnicities to participate in Alzheimer’s clinical trials because this disease is a problem that affects all of us.”

The five-year study, which is funded by a $12 million grant from the National Institutes of Health, launched in September. Investigators will recruit and test 2,000 volunteers from North Texas — half Mexican-American and half non-Hispanic white — and hope to learn something new about how the debilitating disease affects Latinos differentially.

“This is the first project specifically attempting to understand how different biological causes relate to Alzheimer’s disease across ethnicities,” said Sid O’Bryant, associate professor of internal medicine at the University of North Texas in Fort Worth, Texas and principal investigator of the study. “By looking at different potential causes related to memory loss, we may be able to target the right pathway, at the right time, with the right intervention.”

Trying to understand the disparity

The Alzheimer’s Association estimates that Latinos are 1.5 times more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than non-Hispanic whites, and with a growing population of elderly Latinos, researchers are eager to better understand this disparity.

O’Bryant’s previous work points to one possible explanation for Mexican-Americans’ increased risk: metabolic risk factors such as obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

It could be that diabetes and metabolic dysfunction or depression, or a combination of both, are of major importance to memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease among Mexican-Americans.

Sid O’Bryant

“It could be that diabetes and metabolic dysfunction or depression, or a combination of both, are of major importance to memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease among Mexican-Americans,” he said.

Researchers will perform cognitive tests, blood work and brain scans on participants twice during the five-year period to monitor changes in health and behavior over time. O’Bryant’s team even purchased a robot to help handle the mass of data they plan to collect: The bot will process 400,000 blood tubes stored in the university’s biorepository.

Researchers at the USC Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute are responsible for another large chunk of data: 4,000 brain scans. Toga will oversee image storage and processing, while assistant professors Yonggang Shi and Meredith Braskie will process connectivity and structural images, respectively.

The recruitment stage

Investigators have begun recruiting adults aged 50 and older in North Texas, saying that one key to their approach is to study those who do not yet have Alzheimer’s.

“Once people have dementia, their brain has already undergone massive and possibly irreversible damage,” Braskie said. “It’s crucial for scientists to identify very early risk factors and their associated changes in brain measures or cognitive function. This will help us devise treatments that can prevent the onset of Alzheimer’s symptoms.”

The research is supported by the National Institute on Aging in the Institutes of Health (R01AG054073).

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Data and Technology Drive New Approaches to Parkinson’s Care, Research

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente:  University of Rochester Medical Center Research-only New Releases

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

 Complex, multi-system diseases like Parkinson’s have long poised challenges to both scientists and physicians.  University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) researchers are now reaching for new tools, such as algorithms, machine learning, computer simulations, and mobile technologies, to both improve care and identify new therapies.

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that erodes an individual’s control over their movements and speech.  While many of the recent advances in treatment have transformed Parkinson’s into a manageable chronic illness, the individual patient experience can vary widely in both the onset and progression of the symptoms of the disease.  This creates problems for clinicians who must constantly tweak the combination and doses of medications to effectively manage symptoms and researchers who are often confronted with a range of responses to experimental treatments.

The advent and spread of new technologies – such as to broadband internet, smartphones, and remote monitoring and wearable sensors – coupled with growing investments in computational resources and expertise in fields such as bioinformatics and data science have the potential to provide researchers with unprecedented insight into the complex variations of diseases like Parkinson’s. 

An example of this approach is new research out in the journal The Lancet Neurology.  The study sought to identify genetic markers that may explain why motor symptoms –stiffness or rigidity of the arms and legs, slowness or lack of movement, tremors, and walking difficulties – come on more rapidly for some patients with the disease. 

The research involved Charles Venuto, Pharm.D., an assistant professor in the URMC Department of Neurology and the Center for Health + Technology (CHeT), and GNS Healthcare, and was funded by the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

The researchers tapped into huge data sets compiled by the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) which has collected biological samples and clinical data from hundreds of individuals with the disease. 

“We have access to more information about diseases like Parkinson’s than ever before,” said Venuto. “But all of that data has created a scientific conundrum akin to losing sight of the forest for the trees.  In order to unlock the potential of this information we need to harness more sophisticated ways to understand what we are seeing.”

In a departure from traditional research approaches, the team turned over the vast quantities of genetic, clinical, and imaging profiles compiled by the PPMI study to a machine learning and simulation program.  As the computer program analyzed the data, it was also “learning” by constantly refining and modifying its criteria and algorithms as it sifted through the information looking for patterns and associations.

The study identified a mutation in the LINGO2 gene that, together with a second gene and demographic factors, could identify patients with faster motor progression of Parkinson’s.  The finding, if confirmed, could ultimately help clinicians refine care and help researchers more precisely understand how individual patients may respond to experimental therapies.

The application of data-driven technologies to biomedical research has exploded in the last several years. URMC neurologist Ray Dorsey, M.D., M.B.A., who is also the director of CHeT, has been at the forefront of this transformation. Dorsey has long been a pioneer in expanding access to Parkinson’s care via telemedicine.  In 2015, Dorsey – in collaboration with Sage Bionetworks – helped develop an iPhone app which allows patients with Parkinson’s disease to track their symptoms in real time and share this information with researchers.  Dorsey has become a national figure in this field and has organized an annual conference – the dhealth Summit – that brings together thought leaders from industry, academia, health care, and government to discuss the application of technology to improve the delivery and access to care.

Several additional research programs at the intersection of technology and disease have emerged in Rochester in recent years.  Gaurav Sharma, Ph.D., a professor in the University of Rochester Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, is working with wearable sensors to track the progression of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases.  M. Eshan Hoque, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science, is developing analytical tools that scan videos of patients to help diagnose early stage Parkinson’s.  

“The volume of data we are now generating is astronomical,” said Dorsey.  “In the past we would collect data from a patient once every six months, now we have sensors that are sampling data 10 times per second. So as opposed to spending a lot of effort to gather a small amount of data, now with very little effort we are generating huge amounts of data.”

The challenge for researchers is to both transform the vast amount of data that is being collected into a usable format – a process referred to as data wrangling – and then ultimately extract valuable scientific and clinical conclusions.  To accomplish this, new tools and methods to collect, store, organize, and analyze data are being developed.  In recent years, the Medical Center and the University have made significant new investments in state-of-the-art computational resources, recruited new faculty, and started new degree programs in the fields of bioinformatics, computer science, and data science.

The data revolution in medicine has created a wave of new scholarship.  Dorsey also serves as editor-in-chief of Digital Biomarkers, a new journal that launched this month in recognition that emerging technologies hold the potential to transform research and the delivery of care.

“Just as imaging and genetics have revolutionized our understanding of health, altered our definition of disease, revealed our ignorance, and changed therapeutic development, new digital biomarkers can do the same,” said Dorsey.   “Digital Biomarkers was created to foster this emerging field by disseminating the best ideas and supporting the international community of scientists working on novel ways to advance research.” 

Mobile devices may determine how places and people increase HIV risk

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Yale University Science & Health News

Adult men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the highest risk groups for HIV.  In 2010, MSM accounted for 78 percent of new HIV infections among males—with more than one third of all new HIV/AIDS infections occurring among those ages 18 to 29. Social and geographic triggers among the MSM community, factors such as stigma, poverty and proximity to risky areas, may be particularly influential in small cities and towns, with this risk being amplified among those who engage in substance use.

By employing smartphones to assess individuals in the moment based on their GPS or use of dating apps, data can be collected that captures the factors related to HIV risk and substance use by monitoring whether frequenting certain locations or being with certain people may trigger unsafe behavior.

Trace Kershaw

Recent federal funding will allow Yale School of Public Health researchers to develop and test methods to accurately assess the overall effects of GPS tracking and cell phone monitoring on HIV risk behavior and substance abuse. By examining where people go and when they use dating apps, the researchers can better understand how risky behavior changes depending on a person’s location and social interactions. Cell phone apps using GPS systems to easily locate sexual partners make the importance of examining geographic and social context even more crucial to understanding these influences on HIV risk. 

“By employing smartphones to assess individuals in the moment based on their GPS or use of dating apps, data can be collected that captures the factors related to HIV risk and substance use by monitoring whether frequenting certain locations or being with certain people may trigger unsafe behavior,” explains Trace Kershaw, Ph.D., Professor and Chair of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Department at YSPH.  “This will allow us to develop interventions that can be delivered in real-time tailored to a person’s specific location and context and to unleash the power of technology to improve health equity.”

This work builds upon research conducted by a Yale interdisciplinary team, which has emphasized conducting methodologically sound community-based research for more than a decade.  Yale researchers included on the $3.8 million grant from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development include John Pachankis, Danya Keene, Russell Barbour and Stephen Latham. 

This article was submitted by Elisabeth Ann Reitman on October 18, 2017.