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Día Internacional de la Mujer 2011.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Entrega de Silla de Ruedas.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad de Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Visita la página de “Código Ayuda A.C.” Aquí

Entrega de Reconocimiento por la AMS a la labor de Gabriela Goldsmith Presidenta de \\\\\\\"Código Ayuda A.C.” Más »

Día de la Niñez 2011 con nuestras socias y socios de San Lorenzo Tepaltitlán, Toluca, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Entrega de Silla de Ruedas.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

“Yo Me Declaro Defensor” de los Defensores de Derechos Humanos

Participación en la campaña “Yo Me Declaro Defensor” de los Defensores de Derechos Humanos por la Alta Comisionada de los Derechos Humanos de la ONU Navy Pillay. Más »

Entrega de Reconocimiento al Lic. Enrique Peña Nieto por su apoyo como gobernador a los grupos vulnerables de nuestra Asociación.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí. Más »

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad en Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad en Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Compartiendo con nuestras socias y socios de la tercera edad en Molino Abajo, Temoaya, Estado de México.

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" ¡Visita la página de Madres Solas Aquí! Más »

Thelma Dorantes Autora y Actriz principal de la obra de Teatro \\\\

Visita de Thelma Dorantes a las oficina de la Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" en Toluca, Estado de México. Más »

Thelma Dorantes Autora y Actriz principal de la obra de Teatro \\\\

Visita de Thelma Dorantes a las oficina de la Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" en Toluca, Estado de México. Más »

Thelma Dorantes Autora y Actriz principal de la obra de Teatro \\\\

Visita de Thelma Dorantes a las oficina de la Asociación de Madres Solteras y Grupos Vulnerables para el Desarrollo Social \\\\\\\"Por un Trato más digno Yo Madre Soltera Aquí Estoy A.C.\\\\\\\" en Toluca, Estado de México. Más »

Premio Nacional del Trabajo 2012.

Entrega a los trabajadores de la Dirección de Organización y Desarrollo Administrativo de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México del Premio Nacional del Trabajo 2012 por la Secretaría de Trabajo y Previsión Social del Gobierno de México. Más »

 

Oxford Martin School appoints new Director

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: University of Oxford News

The world-leading population biologist Professor Sir Charles Godfray CBE FRS has been appointed as the next Director of the Oxford Martin School. 
Sir Charles, whose work spans ecology, evolution and epidemiology, will lead the School in its multidisciplinary work on the global challenges of the 21st Century.  Through his own work on the health, environmental and economic consequences of food policies Sir Charles has had a major impact on future thinking about global food security. His research on insect population dynamics has been extremely influential in understanding insect population control, including in the biological control of agricultural pests and the genetic control of malaria and dengue vectors. 

Sir Charles holds a number of leadership positions across the research and policy arenas.  He is part of Target Malaria, a multi-university consortium of researchers working on the control of the mosquitoes that transmit malaria in Africa. He is Chair of the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Science Advisory Council, a Trustee Director of Rothamstead Research and a Trustee of the Food Foundation, as well as sitting on a number of other scientific advisory committees. Previous roles include Trustee of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, President of the British Ecological Society, and Chair of the Lead Expert Group of the UK Government’s Foresight Project on the Future of Food and Farming. In 2017 Sir Charles was knighted for services to scientific research and for scientific advice to government.

Sir Charles has been very involved with the Oxford Martin School for a number of years, for example as the Director of the Oxford Martin Programme on the Future of Food and as co-creator of the Oxford Martin Restatements, a new approach to providing succinct summaries of scientific evidence around highly contentious topics. 

The Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, Professor Louise Richardson, said: ‘Sir Charles is an exceptional scientist with an outstanding track record of ensuring the impact of his research on the world beyond the academy, just as James Martin envisioned. I am delighted that he will be taking up the position of Director of the Oxford Martin School in February.’

Sir Charles commented: ‘I am honoured to be appointed to lead the Oxford Martin School.  The work of the School, across so many subject areas, has never felt more urgent or compelling, but I am also deeply aware that it is only by ensuring that this cutting edge research has an impact beyond academia, for example through those who set government policies around the world, that we can truly fulfil James Martin’s vision.’

Professor Sarah Whatmore, Chair of the Oxford Martin School’s Management Committee and Head of the University’s Social Sciences Division, said: ‘We are delighted that Sir Charles will be taking up this hugely important post within the University. The breadth of his research interests, combined with years of success in translating research into policy and his experience of the challenges of ensuring that academic research delivers solutions, made Charles a perfect fit for this role. I look forward to working closely with him.’

Sir Charles will take up his post on 1st February 2018. 

Where patients get prescription opioids: It’s not where you might think

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: University of Southern California

http://news.usc.edu/files/2018/01/WorriedPatient_web-480x320.jpg
Doctors find themselves in difficult situations with patients who are seeking pain relief. A new USC Schaeffer Center study found patients largely obtain prescriptions of opioids from a doctor’s office. (Photo/iStock)
Legislatures and hospitals around the country have tightened emergency room prescribing guidelines for opioids to curb the addiction epidemic, but a new USC study shows that approach diverts attention from the main sources of prescription painkillers.

Overall opioid prescribing skyrocketed 471 percent from 1996 to 2012, according to the study by USC Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economics and the Keck School of Medicine of USC.

Emergency rooms account for a very small share of all prescribed opioids.

Sarah Axeen

But the share of opioids prescribed from emergency departments was small and declined during that 17-year period, from 7.4 percent to 4.4 percent. The share of opioids prescribed from doctor’s offices was much larger and actually increased during that period, to 83 percent from 71 percent.

“One hypothesis has been that the emergency room is a recurrent site of care and that patients could be going from ER to ER to obtain multiple prescriptions to support their addiction,” said Sarah Axeen, an assistant professor of emergency medicine at the Keck School of Medicine and researcher at the USC Schaeffer Center who led the study.

“But our analysis shows that emergency rooms account for a very small share of all prescribed opioids. In fact, doctor’s offices are the source of many more of these drugs.” (Story continues below)

The researchers said emergency departments have become one of the most tightly regulated areas for prescription opioids in the health system. On average, though, 44 percent of the average patient’s prescription opioids were prescribed from a doctor’s office in an outpatient setting, 26 percent from dental offices and other outpatient sites, 16 percent from emergency departments and 14 percent from inpatient hospital settings.

The study published Jan. 16 in the journal Annals of Emergency Medicine comes just as a growing number of states have tightened restrictions on opioid prescriptions with the hope of curbing addiction and reducing the number of opioid-related deaths.

The data analyzed for the study were from the annual, nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey of patients. The survey is conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

A look in the mirror

Doctors and other providers are wrestling with the scope of the opioid epidemic, and with the acknowledgment that they contributed to it, said Michael Menchine, a study co-author and an associate professor of clinical emergency medicine at the Keck School of Medicine.

We had convinced ourselves that prescribing opioids was a fine thing to do [for patients in chronic pain].

Michael Menchine

“From the 1990s to at least 2013, we had convinced ourselves that prescribing opioids was a fine thing to do” for patients in chronic pain, Menchine said. “It is hard to look in the mirror years later and say 2 million people might be dependent on opioids because of this sort of practice.”

Opioids killed more than 42,000 Americans in 2016 — the most of any year on record, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. At least 40 percent of all opioid overdoses involve a prescription.

High-risk opioid users — those with the highest use — represent the top 5 percent of annual opioid consumption. The study showed that a high-risk user obtains just 2.4 percent of his or her opioids from an emergency department prescription, but 87.8 percent from a doctor’s office. Furthermore, more than 80 percent of the chronic and high-strength dosage prescriptions were from office settings.

Focus also on treatment

Study co-author Seth Seabury, the director of the Keck-Schaeffer Initiative for Population Health, said policymakers and providers have good intentions but over-restrictive prescription policies for emergency rooms are not targeting the main source.

Chart showing where opioids are prescribed

The number of opioid prescriptions originating from emergency departments has decreased in the last 20 years. (Graphic/USC Schaeffer Center)

“We are not saying these policies are bad,” Seabury said. “What our findings suggest is that they should really be focusing these policies on other places in the system.”

Policies that just restrict opioid prescriptions do not address the growing need for treatment for people in the throes of addiction. The health system could benefit from a more holistic approach by putting greater focus on substance abuse treatment, starting in the emergency room, Menchine said.

“I want to be there for my patients and if they have substance abuse problems, I want to be able to address it in the best way I can,” Menchine said. “Too often people think the solution is to simply say we can no longer prescribe opioids. For me, the solution is to say: It looks to me like you have a problem with opioid addiction and here are the options available so you can address it.”

The study was funded by a grant from the Emergency Medicine Foundation to Menchine and Seabury.

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No Planets Needed: NASA Study Shows Disk Patterns Can Self-Generate

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Astrobiology Magazine: Latest News

When scientists searching for exoplanets — worlds located beyond our solar system — first spotted patterns in disks of dust and gas around young stars, they thought newly formed planets might be the cause. But a recent NASA study cautions that there may be another explanation — one that doesn’t involve planets at all.

Exoplanet hunters watch stars for a few telltale signs that there might be planets in orbit, like changes in the color and brightness of the starlight. For young stars, which are often surrounded by disks of dust and gas, scientists look for patterns in the debris — such as rings, arcs and spirals — that might be caused by an orbiting world.

“We’re exploring what we think is the leading alternative contender to the planet hypothesis, which is that the dust and gas in the disk form the patterns when they get hit by ultraviolet light,” said Marc Kuchner, an astrophysicist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Arcs, rings and spirals appear in the debris disk around the star HD 141569A. The black region in the center is caused by a mask that blocks direct light from the star. This image incorporates observations made in June and August 2015 using the Hubble Space Telescope’s STIS instrument. Credits: NASA/Hubble/Konishi et al. 2016

Kuchner presented the findings of the new study on Thursday, Jan. 11, at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington. A paper describing the results has been submitted to The Astrophysical Journal.

When high-energy UV starlight hits dust grains, it strips away electrons. Those electrons collide with and heat nearby gas. As the gas warms, its pressure increases and it traps more dust, which in turn heats more gas. The resulting cycle, called the photoelectric instability (PeI), can work in tandem with other forces to create some of the features astronomers have previously associated with planets in debris disks.

Kuchner and his colleagues designed computer simulations to better understand these effects. The research was led by Alexander Richert, a doctoral student at Penn State in University Park, Pennsylvania, and includes Wladimir Lyra, a professor of astronomy at California State University, Northridge and research associate at NASA’s Jet Propulstion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The simulations were run on the Discover supercomputing cluster at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation at Goddard.

In 2013, Lyra and Kuchner suggested that PeI could explain the narrow rings seen in some disks. Their model also predicted that some disks would have arcs, or incomplete rings, which were first directly observed in 2016.

“People very often model these systems with planets, but if you want to know what a disk with a planet looks like, you first have to know what a disk looks like without a planet,” Richert said.

Richert is lead author on the new study, which builds on Lyra and Kuchner’s previous simulations by including an additional new factor: radiation pressure, a force caused by starlight striking dust grains.

Light exerts a minute physical force on everything it encounters. This radiation pressure propels solar sails and helps direct comet tails so they always point away from the Sun. The same force can push dust into highly eccentric orbits, and even blow some of the smaller grains out of the disk entirely.

The researchers modeled how radiation pressure and PeI work together to affect the movement of dust and gas. They also found that the two forces manifest different patterns depending on the physical properties of the dust and gas.


Astronomers thought patterns spotted in disks around young stars could be planetary signposts. But is there another explanation? A new simulation performed on NASA’s Discover supercomputing cluster shows how the dust and gas in the disk could form those patterns — no planets needed. Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

The 2013 simulations of PeI revealed how dust and gas interact to create rings and arcs, like those observed around the real star HD 141569A. With the inclusion of radiation pressure, the 2017 models show how these two factors can create spirals like those also observed around the same star. While planets can also cause these patterns, the new models show scientists should avoid jumping to conclusions.

“Carl Sagan used to say extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence,” Lyra said. “I feel we are sometimes too quick to jump to the idea that the structures we see are caused by planets. That is what I consider an extraordinary claim. We need to rule out everything else before we claim that.”

Kuchner and his colleagues said they would continue to factor other parameters into their simulations, like turbulence and different types of dust and gas. They also intend to model how these factors might contribute to pattern formation around different types of stars.

A NASA-funded citizen science project spearheaded by Kuchner, called Disk Detective, aims to discover more stars with debris disks. So far, participants have contributed more than 2.5 million classifications of potential disks. The data has already helped break new ground in this research.

Sciences, unite! Integrated intro course revolutionizes science instruction

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Princeton News

https://www.princeton.edu/sites/default/files/styles/rss_enclosure_image/public/images/2017/11/20171024_IntraSci_Microscope_Ecoli_DJA_039_d.jpg?itok=mqXEVzJn

At many colleges, students who are interested in science will enroll in multiple introductory courses, learning about genetics and chemistry and physics and computer programming as separate and largely unrelated disciplines. At Princeton, students have another option: the Integrated Science Curriculum (ISC). Four courses co-taught by multiple professors make up the integrated science curriculum — two classes in the fall, two in the spring.

“The labs have really been comprehensive,” said first-year student Bianca Swidler. “I feel like there’s been a great coverage of chemistry, physics, biology — it’s really hard to pick a favorite, like picking a favorite kid.” The photos below show ISC classroom and laboratory sessions. Each lab is spread across two weeks, to allow students time to learn new techniques and become comfortable applying them to research questions. Everyone pictured is a first-year student unless otherwise noted.

Lab 1: Reynolds numbers

Students drop spheres through clear liquids — a thick glycerin the first week, then water the second week — to measure the spheres’ falling speeds and calculate the Reynolds number of each fluid, a measure of its inertia and viscosity. In addition to introducing students to lab materials and techniques, the lab gives students an intuitive sense of how bacteria move through their thick, wet world. When students drop low-density aluminum balls through glycerin, the slow movement can be measured with just a ruler and a stopwatch. The students also use a motion-capture camera connected to lab computers to track the spheres’ descent from one frame to the next. The first week, they compare the computer-assisted measurements against those taken by hand. By the second week, when they drop steel balls through water, students depend on the camera and computer, as the dense beads fall quickly.

  • Artem Khan (left) and Kennedy Miller gather data from the motion-capture camera (far right) trained on a beaker of glycerin.
  • Students at computers in lab
    Students work in pairs to measure the slow progress of aluminum balls through glycerin, a proxy for the slow movement of bacteria through their moist environments.
  • Professor Callan giving Integrated Science lecture to students
    Professor Curtis Callan, the James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Physics, explains the ideal gas law through prescription sunglasses. “It was fabulous — like ISC meets 007,” said Swidler.
  • Student writing in notebook
    A student records careful measurements in a lab notebook.

Lab 2: Electronics and solar power

During the first week of this two-part lab, students gain a fundamental grasp of circuitry. As their skills progress, the challenges get harder. By the second week, students make a nanocrystalline solar cell and build a circuit that can redirect the solar energy once it crosses a predetermined threshold. “It’s combining a little bit of chemistry and solar-cell engineering with circuitry and the physics behind that,” said Jennifer Gadd, a lecturer in chemistry and the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics (LSI) who has been an ISC lab instructor for five years.

  • Students working on circuit boards
    Kennedy Miller (left) and Bianca Swidler install a voltage divider on their breadboard.
  • Students working with graduate student on circuit board
    Teaching assistant Hugh Wilson (a graduate student in the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, standing) helps Jasper Lee (left) and Artem Khan learn how to debug their circuit.
  • Student working on circuit board
    Jasper Lee installs a potentiometer — a tunable resistor.
  • Students working on circuit boards
    From left: Noam Miller, Donovan Cassidy-Nolan and John McEnany measure the output from their breadboard.

Lab 3: Fluorescent E. coli

In their first biology-focused lab, students examine the relationship between DNA (genes) and gene expression. They are given five “mystery samples” of E. coli bacteria, four of which carry the genetic instructions to produce mCherry, a fluorescent protein. As they work to identify their mystery samples, students must isolate DNA, run polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to amplify the number of specific DNA segments, and use a fluorescent microscope.

  • Students looking at beaker of liquid
    From left: Yechen Hu, Rohin McIntosh, Henry Harrigan and Isabel Medlock look at one of their five mystery samples in a cell culture flask.
  • Student working with microscope
    Students put samples into a microcentrifuge to separate out the DNA from the rest of the cellular material.
  • Student using syringe, student examining tube
    Daniel Jubas examines one sample while Katie Tam uses a micropipette to prepare another for PCR amplification.
  • Students watching microscope demonstration in lab
    Lab co-instructor Jennifer Gadd demonstrates how a fluorescent microscope can help determine whether mCherry DNA is present in a sample.
  • Student putting liquid into tube in lab
    Artem Khan prepares to separate out DNA from one of the five mystery samples of E. coli given to each team of students.
  • Liquid dropping from syringe, with glass beakers in background
    One of these five identical-looking samples contains wildtype E. coli, while the other four have mCherry DNA, which causes the bacteria to glow.
  • Student at computer with green light coming from microscope
    Donovan Cassidy-Nolan examines data from the fluorescent microscope.
  • Details from slide of E Coli experiment
    This phase contrast image of E. coli, taken with a microscope, will be paired with an image of the sample’s fluorescence to help identify the presence of mCherry DNA.

“A number of us at Princeton believe that some of the most exciting science of the future will take place at the boundaries between the traditional scientific disciplines,” said Joshua Shaevitz, a professor of physics and LSI, who is one of the curriculum’s several professors. “We hope to train a new generation of young scientists who naturally bridge these topics, feeling equally at home deriving equations, working with living cells at the bench and programming sophisticated computer analysis algorithms.”

He added: “Conventional introductory science classes can obscure the connections between fields by using different language and symbols for the same quantities or concepts. Integrated science is our attempt to teach a comprehensive introduction to the scientific endeavor that stresses the links between disciplines in a mathematically rigorous way.”

The curriculum was first imagined about 15 years ago, when several faculty members got together to create a cohesive introduction to the natural sciences. “Part of the idea was, ‘How can we convey the depths of the different subjects while encouraging the students to see their potential, in the broadest possible terms?’” said William Bialek, the John Archibald Wheeler/Battelle Professor in Physics and LSI, one of the creators of the integrated curriculum. “If you wait too long to introduce students to that way of thinking, you make their job more difficult, and you make our job more difficult.”

By the end of the integrated science curriculum, the students have received an unusually thorough preparation, said co-instructor Quan Wang, an associate research scholar at LSI and lecturer in physics and LSI who has also taught at Stanford University and the University of New Mexico.

“Last year, one of the students from this class ended up working in my lab,” Wang said. “It was really amazing to see a freshman who had developed so many skills just from this class that are directly integrate-able into modern-day research. It was something I’ve never seen before.”

How your classmates’ DNA could affect your education

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

Our classmates’ DNA may play a role in how far we go in school, a new paper suggests.

“We examined whether the genes of your peer groups influenced your height, weight, or educational attainment. We didn’t find a correlation to height or weight, but did find a small one with how far you go in school,” says Ben Domingue, assistant professor at Stanford University’s Graduate School of Education and first author of the new paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The link can be explained by what researchers call social genetic effects, when the health or behavior of one individual is affected by the genes of another. The effect shows up, recent research on mice has found, with roommates, as well.

The genetic influence of schoolmates may manifest itself through traits or characteristics that then influence your behavior, says researchers.

Say, for example, that your friend stays up late because of a genetic disposition to burn the midnight oil. That behavior may cause you to stay up late too, affecting your educational attainment, which researchers define as the amount of formal schooling completed.

The association is not deterministic, explains Domingue—meaning you can’t blame your friends’ genes (or your own, for that matter) for that D in chemistry. The effect is also small—roughly one-third of an extra year of schooling.

But the findings do point to important ways in which genetic and social effects are interrelated in their influence on behavior.

“Unlike height, educational attainment is socially contextualized. There is more going on than genetics,” says Kathleen Mullan Harris, senior author and professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “Our results imply that scientific investigations into either genetic and social effects need to account for the other.”

The research uses data from 5,500 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a large, nationally representative National Institutes of Health study directed by Harris at UNC.

The research also looked at how similar we are genetically to our friends. Previous research has shown that friends share similar genes (they can be as genetically close as fourth-cousins, a 2014 study found).

This new paper expands and advances that research, showing that schoolmates are also more genetically similar to each other than strangers. Domingue says the genetic similarities among schoolmates points to a role for social structure in shaping such genetic similarities.

How high-status friends could affect your weight

“It is certainly the case that individuals do a lot of planning around which schools their children will attend,” the researchers say. “One of the side effects of this competition to gain access to certain schools seems to be the grouping of like with like.”

This investigation into the “social genome” has potential implications for both social science and genetics. For social scientists, social genetic effects offer a path for improved understanding of peer effects. For geneticists, this work points to the need for consideration of social context in genetic studies of variables that may be strongly influenced by one’s social setting.

In addition to Domingue and Harris, the paper’s coauthors are from the Duke University School of Medicine; the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Princeton University; and the University of Colorado, Boulder.

Source: Stanford University

How a tumor grows can help researchers predict how it will respond to therapy

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: University of Southern California

http://news.usc.edu/files/2018/01/typical_carcinoid_tumor_5020216730-480x320.jpg
A tumor fills part of an air passage. (Photo/Wikimedia Commons)
Individual tumors respond in different ways to cancer drugs. Until now, it remained a mystery why tumors have different reactions to the same treatment.

Now a new study at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering sheds light on a tumor’s growth and how it may respond to therapy.

Identifying a measurement or quantity that predicts how specific tumors will respond, called a predictive biomarker, “is extremely valuable to cancer research,” said Stacey Finley, a USC assistant professor of biomedical engineering and co-author of the study. Finley, a Gordon S. Marshall Early Career Chair, is also a faculty member at the USC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience.

Tumors exploit a biological process called angiogenesis — the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. To grow and multiply, tumors source nutrients delivered by this new vasculature. But tumor growth will slow down if proteins like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenesis promoter, are stopped.

The researchers used a computational model of tumor-bearing mice to investigate a response to VEGF-inhibiting drugs and how this response is affected by tumor development. The model showed that certain properties of tumor growth help predict whether drug therapy will thwart tumor expansion.

Thomas Gaddy and Stacey Finley

Stacey Finley, right, with the study’s lead author, Thomas Gaddy. (Photo/Courtesy of the USC Computational Systems Biology Lab)

Finley’s team found that certain parameters about the way the tumor grows could successfully and accurately predict the response to anti-angiogenic treatment that inhibits VEGF signaling in the mouse. Using the characteristics of the tumor’s growth, the team could predict how effective the anti-angiogenic therapy would be or whether the tumor’s growth will slow down, even before treatment begins, he explained.

Next step

The next step in the research includes a mathematical model to simulate a virtual population of mice randomly assigned different tumor growth parameters. The model will mimic tumor growth with and without drug therapy and predict how mice might respond to drug therapy (resulting in slower tumor growth). The researchers will also use experimental data to validate the model’s predictions.

The study received funding from the National Science Foundation. The USC Provost’s Office also provided support in the form of an Undergraduate Research Fellowship granted to the study’s lead author, Thomas Gaddy.

Co-authors include Qianhui Wu and Alyssa Arnheim. The research, titled “Mechanistic modeling quantifies the influence of tumor growth kinetics on the response to anti-angiogenic treatment,” is available online.

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American Views: Trust, Media and Democracy

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Edelman

This morning the Knight Foundation released a Gallup survey of 19,000 Americans which probes fading trust in media and the rise of disinformation. I am a member of the Foundation’s Commission on Trust, Media and Democracy. The conclusions from the survey are disturbing. The implications for public relations are profound. Here are the key findings:

  1. Negative Attitude Towards Media — Forty three percent have a negative view of the media, 33 percent are positive and 23 percent are neutral. The average trust score for media is 37 percent
  2. Objectivity — Forty four percent say they can think of a news source that reports the news objectively. Fox News is the most commonly cited. Sixty six percent of Americans say that media does not do a good job of separating fact from opinion. Twenty seven percent say that they are very confident that they can know when media is reporting fact versus opinion
  3. Media Key to Democracy but Performing Poorly — Eight in ten say that the news media are critical to our democracy, especially in ensuring accountability of leaders. More than half say that the media is not doing that job well
  4. Definition of Fake News in Question — Four of ten Republicans consider accurate news stories that put a candidate or party in a negative light to be fake news. Meanwhile 77 percent of respondents say that the spread of inaccurate information online is a major problem for news
  5. Impact of Social Media — A majority of respondents believe that social media, enabling politicians to go direct to citizens, has been a negative. By contrast, the cumulative effect of cable news, news aggregators and citizen videos online has been a positive. There is great skepticism about the platforms directing news stories to users on the basis of past reading behavior…this is a problem for democracy
  6. Most Frequent Source of News — Cable news is number one at 66 percent, followed by internet news websites but cable news is significantly more trusted. One in four Americans gets his/her news from a single source. An equal number say they get their news from newspapers as from social media (38 percent)
  7. Harder to Be a Well-Informed Citizen — By nearly two to one, Americans say it is harder to be well-informed, despite the cornucopia of information. Only half feel confident that there are enough objective sources to help them sort through bias, down from 66 percent twenty five years ago

This is a problem for many other markets. Our German colleagues told me about a made-up story on the kidnapping and rape of a 13-year-old German Russian girl in 2016 by three “Mediterranean types”, allegedly migrants. Russian media and social channels in Germany give this story full attention even though German police conclude the story is false and the girl lied. In Mexico City, in the wake of the earthquake this past September, one of the major networks, Televisa, reported that a twelve year old, Frida Sofia, had survived and was under the debris of her shattered school. Reporters from the network broadcast from the scene every hour until rescue teams said there were no more survivors. Soldiers on the scene said that Frida never existed and that she had been an invention of Televisa. Two weeks after the inferno consumed Grenfell Towers in London, a meme began to circulate on Twitter that a baby had been rescued miraculously from the flames, a complete hoax, just another made-up person. BBC Trending last week attributed the “motivations of the hoaxers to financial gain, pure pranking or bizarre political point-making.” The most disappointing is public officials making bogus claims; such is the case with UK Foreign Minister Boris Johnson, who claims that 350 million pounds goes every week from the UK to the European Union. The Guardian revealed that this number is “a misleading statement wrapped in a lie.”

To put this into context, read this quote from Hannah Arendt’s “The Origins of Totalitarianism,” the study of the Third Reich. She writes, “The result of a consistent and total substitution of lies for factual truth is not that the lie will not be accepted as truth, and truth be defamed as a lie, but the senses by which we take our bearings in the real world — and the category of truth versus falsehood is among the mental means to this end — is being destroyed.”

I suggest that the public relations business move itself from a reliance on advocacy toward a new policy of informing the populace more broadly on subjects of the day. That means providing the positive and negative facts, with third party attribution. If half of the people are now relying on social media as their primary source of news, then we must take on the responsibility for educating those who would enter the dialogue. We must do everything we can to make media a force for accuracy. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan’s immortal quote applies now more than ever: “People are entitled to their own opinions but not to their own facts.”

Richard Edelman is president and CEO.

Will state or federal pot laws come out on top?

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Stanford University – Futurity

marijuana

The doors to recreational pot dispensaries opened in California this month, bringing the number of states that have legalized recreational use of the drug to eight. More than 30 states allow for medical marijuana use.

But in early January, US Attorney General Jeff Sessions rescinded an Obama-era policy that, in effect, allowed state laws regarding marijuana use, for medical and commercial, to trump federal law.

Will the new move by AG Sessions dampen the burgeoning commercial marijuana industry in individual states? Federal law designates marijuana in the same class as heroin and LSD. So, will residents in states that allow for recreational marijuana use be at risk for criminal prosecution?

Here, Robert MacCoun, law professor at Stanford University, answers some of these questions.

International fieldwork: Princeton geosciences major studies fisheries in New Zealand

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: Princeton News

https://www.princeton.edu/sites/default/files/styles/rss_enclosure_image/public/images/2018/01/FromEastCoast2SouthSeas_069_horiz_d'.jpg?itok=WdK-o_Ha

As Keo Chan of the Class of 2018 flew into Dunedin, New Zealand, to begin his semester abroad, a giant rainbow appeared over the airport. It was a “lucky sign,” he said, that he was in the right place.

Keo Chan, a geosciences major, spent a semester abroad studying aquaculture and fisheries in New Zealand through a combination of courses, labs and fieldwork.

If you had told Chan, a native New Yorker, that his Princeton education would include studying fjords in the South Island of New Zealand, he might not have believed you. But a gut instinct and some helpful advice from the Office of International Programs were all it took for him to decide on a spring semester abroad at the University of Otago.

Chan, a geosciences major with a specific interest in fisheries science, said he knew that studying at a university abroad would nudge him out of his comfort zone while enhancing his academic portfolio.

“I was eager to push my boundaries, socially and academically,” he said. “Since I eventually want to pursue a career in fisheries science, it was important to me that I gain experience in the field and conduct research in a place with abundant natural fisheries and opportunities.”

The South Island of New Zealand was a natural fit for his semester abroad. Surrounded by mountains, glaciers, beaches and glowworm caves, Chan could take full advantage of the university’s natural classroom.

With the help of IFSA-Butler, a nonprofit study abroad organization, Chan spent the first few weeks of his semester living in a traditional “marae” — the cultural hub of a Maori village — where he cooked meals with members of the community, worked on a small-group project surveying eels and other river fish, and learned ancient Maori fishing techniques.

After his initial field experience, Chan moved into the on-campus apartments and began school with his peers from around the world. He enrolled in classes in the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, most of which required fieldwork.

“I wanted to take courses that involved work and research that was out of the physical classroom,” Chan says. “I really tried to take advantage of these fieldwork opportunities abroad that I couldn’t do back at Princeton, and it ended up working out in my favor.”

His courses, which included “Marine Ecology,” “Practical and Field Oceanography,” and “Field Methods for Assessment of Fisheries and Aquatic Habitats,” gave him the opportunity to delve deeper into different aspects of fisheries science. While he still attended lectures and labs, his classroom requirements also included weekly ocean surveying trips on a university-owned boat, as well as a weeklong expedition to Stewart Island to study at the marine science department’s field station.

“In my oceanography class, for example, we explored the way that water flowed around Paterson Inlet — a large natural harbor off the coast of Stewart Island,” Chan said. “We were trying to figure out how best to manage zoning the inlet for aquaculture, tourism and fishing.”

Chan’s work in the field also helped him write his junior paper. With guidance from a University of Otago professor, he gathered real-time data for his research discussing the gradient and carbon burying across Doubtful Sound, a major fjord on the South Island.

“I had a great experience [writing my paper] and felt like I made some interesting discoveries,” Chan said. “It’s safe to say that I probably couldn’t have done this particular junior paper on campus at Princeton.”

Though Chan’s experiences were unique, his semester abroad demonstrates the range of possibilities available to Princeton students.

“Spending a semester enrolled in courses at a university abroad is a great way for students to advance themselves academically,” said Gisella Gisolo, director of study abroad in the Office of International Programs. “Not only that, students tend to return to campus with a renewed sense of purpose and intellectual focus.”

For Chan, the advantages to studying abroad went far beyond the gains in his field of study. He said he felt that he had more time to himself, which allowed him to reflect on his work and explore the beautiful region. He hiked Mt. Cook, explored glowworm caves, watched rugby matches at the tavern on campus and visited the Great Barrier Reef in Australia.

“I almost felt as though I was equilibrating,” Chan said. “I was able to just take a minute to look around instead of just looking forward.”

Mostly, however, he is grateful for the perspective he gained.

“Before [going abroad], I was always having doubts about my very specific major,” Chan said. “I couldn’t necessarily see the path going forward, since there aren’t that many fish-related classes offered at Princeton.”

After four months of intense study and field research in New Zealand, those doubts have been laid to rest. “My semester abroad really helped me to see where I was going,” Chan says. “I’m more confident of my choices now, both personally and academically.”

This article originally appeared in “Princeton International,” a magazine published by the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies.

Oxford researchers honoured in Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists

This NEWS was origynally shared on Sutesuaem Universities News

Fuente: University of Oxford News

Four scientists and engineers from Oxford University are among the laureates and finalists of the 2018 Blavatnik Awards for Young Scientists in the United Kingdom, announced today by the Blavatnik Family Foundation and the New York Academy of Sciences.
One laureate in each of the three Blavatnik Awards categories—Life Sciences, Physical Sciences & Engineering, and Chemistry—will each receive a prize of US$100,000, and two finalists in each category will each receive US$30,000. The Blavatnik Awards in the UK are the largest unrestricted cash prizes available exclusively to young scientists in the UK.

Professor Andrew Goodwin of the Department of Chemistry has been named as the 2018 Chemistry Laureate. Professor Goodwin is a world leader in the study of the chemistry and physics of functional materials, which have unique magnetic, optical, and electrical properties. His work has revealed the role of structural disorder in these materials, and how this phenomenon can explain unique material properties such as negative thermal expansion, negative compressibility, and exotic magnetic states.

Professor Henry Snaith of Oxford’s Department of Physics has been named the Physical Sciences & Engineering Laureate. His pioneering work in developing new, low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells based on metal halide perovskite materials has not only initiated a new research field now studied by scientists around the world, but also has the potential to deliver solar energy to the market at a fraction of the cost of currently used materials.

Professor Timothy Behrens of the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences has been named as a Life Sciences Finalist. Professor Behrens investigates the biology of the brain that underlies human behaviour. By combining mathematical models with behavioural experiments and neural recordings, he has uncovered at a cellular level how the brain stores abstract information about relationships between things in the world, and how we use this mental map in decision-making. His discoveries have applications in neural network computing and artificial intelligence, but also on our understanding of cognition and mental health.

Professor Philipp Kukura of Oxford’s Department of Chemistry has been named as a Chemistry Finalist. He is a physical chemist recognised for pioneering efforts in single-molecule scale microscopy and spectroscopy that enable the study of native, unlabelled molecules in real time. His particular focus is on biological macromolecules such as proteins as they interact with drugs or self-assemble with each other.

Professor Louise Richardson, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford, said: ‘We are all delighted to learn of this public recognition for some of our most creative young researchers.

‘It speaks to their potential to improve our understanding of ourselves and the world around us, as well to inspire others to grapple with the most vexing scientific challenges. It is exciting to think of the future impact of their transformative research.’

The Blavatnik Awards, established by the Blavatnik Family Foundation in the United States in 2007 and administered by the New York Academy of Sciences, honour and support exceptional early-career scientists and engineers aged 42 years or younger. In 2018, the Awards recognise the first cohort of international honourees in the United Kingdom and in Israel. To date, the Blavatnik Awards have conferred prizes totalling US$5 million, honouring 220 outstanding young scientists and engineers.

In this inaugural year of the Blavatnik Awards in the UK, 124 nominations were received from 67 academic and research institutions across England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. A distinguished jury of leading senior scientists and engineers from throughout the UK selected the Laureates and Finalists.

The inaugural Blavatnik Awards Laureates and Finalists in the UK will be honoured at a gala dinner and ceremony at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London on 7th March, 2018.

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